Climate - Class IX

Class 9 Climate

**1. How is the EL-Nino Phenomenon connected with the southern oscillation?

Ans:-1) Normally a cold current flow along the Peruvian coast. (Class 9 Climate)
2)Every two to five years a warm ocean current takes the place of the cold Peruvian current.
3)The changes in the pressure condition over Pacific Ocean are connected to the ELNino , so this phenomenon is   referred to as ENSO (EL-Nino southern oscillations).

***2.Define Monsoons .What do you understand by ‘break in monsoon’ ?

Ans:- Arabic word ‘mousim’ is the main word, from where ‘monsoon’ word originated. It refers to the wind directions during a year.
 “Break in Monsoon” means the dry spells in between the periods of monsoon rain.

***3. Distinguish between climate and weather?

Ans:-Climate refers to the sum total of weather condition variations over a large area for a long period of time (30-40 yrs)
Weather refers to the state of the atmospheric phenomena over an area at any point of time for a short period.

**4.Why does rainfall decrease from east to west in Northern India ?

Ans:-1)Both Eastern and Western part of India receive rainfall from the Bay of Bengal branch of the Monsoons.
         2)  The eastern part receives more rainfall as compared to the Western part due to Bay of Bengal branch which proceeds from east to west.
        3) The western part are away from the sea , so the Monsoon get drier.

***5.What are the major control of the climate of a place? Explain them.

Ans:- They  are six major control of the climate of a place:-
1) Latitude:- Due to the curvature of the earth , the amount of solar energy received vary from one place to another place according to latitude. As a result air temperature generally decrease from the equator towards the poles.
2)Altitude:- As one goes from the surface of the earth to higher altitude , the temperature decreases. The hills are therefore cooler during summers.
3) Pressure and wind system:-The pressure and wind system of any area depend on the latitude and altitude of the place . Thus it influences the temperature and rainfall pattern.                                                                     4)Distance from the sea:- They exert moderating influence on climate . As the distance from the sea increases , its moderating influence decreases and the people experience extreme weather condition , very hot during summer and very cold during winter .
5)Ocean currents :- Ocean along with on shore wind affect the climate of the coastal area .
6)Relief features :- High Mountains act as a barrier for cold or hot winds. If they are high enough may also cause of rainfall. The lee ward side of the mountains remains relatively dry.

***6. Mention any three characteristics of the Monsoon’.

Ans: The Monsoons are unpredictable in nature. These are affected by different atmospheric conditions prevailing in the region.
100-120 days are the duration of monsoon.

**7.What is burst of monsoon?

Ans: The monsoon rainfall suddenly increase during the time of its arrival. and it continues for several days. It is the ‘burst of monsoon’.

**8.What is meant by ‘October Heat”?

Ans: With the retreat of the South-west Monsoon oppressive heat occurs due to the combination of high temperatures as the sky is clear and excessive humidity as the land is still moist with water. This is generally ‘October Heat’. Mainly north Indian plain experienced such kind of situation.

**9.Why does Patna receive less rainfall than Kolkata? Give two reasons.

Ans: i) Patna is located away from the Bay of Bengal than Kolkata.
(ii) Monsoon winds while moves from Bay of Bengal towards Patna sheds most of its moisture in Kolkata.

**10.Why the eastern side of the Western Ghats is called a typical rain shadow area?

Ans: The Arabian Sea branch sheds maximum moisture on the western side of the Western Ghats. After that it climb down and sheds its moisture whatever it has and winds increase moisture holding capacity. Hence they do not cause rainfall on the eastern side of the Western Ghats, making it a typical rain shadow area.

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