How, When and Where - Class VIII

Q1. How the dates are more important in history?

Ans: There was a time when historians were fascinated with dates. There were heated debates about the dates on which rulers were  crowned or battles were fought. In the common-sense notion, history was synonymous with dates.
History is certainly about changes that occur over time. It is about finding out how things were in the past and how things have changed. As soon as we compare the past with the present we refer to time, we talk of “before” and“after”.
Q2. Who was James Mill? How did he periodice Indian history?
Ans:  In 1817, James Mill, a Scottish economist and political philosopher, published a massive three-volume work,A History of British India. In this he divided Indian history into three periods – Hindu, Muslim and British.This periodisation came to be widely accepted.
Q3. Why did James Mill suggest the British to conquer the whole India?
Ans: British rule, Mill felt, could civilise India. To do this it was necessary to introduce European manners, arts, institutions and laws in India. Hence, Mill, suggested that the  British should conquer all the territories in India to ensure the enlightenment and happiness of the Indian people. According to Mill India was not capable of progress without British help.
Q4. What sources do historians use in writing about thelast 250 years of Indian history?
I) Administration produces records:
One important source is the official records of the British administration. Every instruction, plan, policy decision, agreement, investigation had to be clearly written up.
II) The British also felt that all important documents and letters needed to be carefully preserved.
III) The practice of surveying also became common under the colonial administration. The British started survey for knowing the country well.

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