Mineral and Energy Resources - Class 12

Mineral and Energy Resources

India has great diversity of physical properties and as well as mineral and energy resources. Here mineral means a natural substance of organic or inorganic origin with definite chemical and physical properties. There are two types of minerals – metallic and non metallic. These minerals and some energy resources are very important for our civilization. Solved multiple choice questions are as follows:

  1. Iron ore is the metallic ferrous minerals.
  2. Copper, bauxite are metallic non- ferrous minerals.
  3. Non metallic organic minerals are coal, petroleum etc.
  4. Non metallic inorganic minerals are mica, limestone and graphite.
  5. In India, systematic surveying, prospecting and exploration for minerals is undertaken by the Geological Survey of India (GSI), Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC), National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO) etc.
  6. Over 97% of coal reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Son, Mahanadi and Godavari.
  7. Kerala has deposits of monazite and Thorium, bauxite clay.
  8. Goa has iron ore deposits.
  9. The two types of iron ore found in India are hematite and magnetite.
  10. About 95% of total reserves of iron ore is located in states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu.
  11. Iron ore mines: Mayurbhanj, Kendujhar, Gua, Durg, Chandrapur, Bailadila, Bellary, Tumkur and Ratnagiri etc. are important.
  12. Manganese mines are Sundergarh, Balaghat, Bhandara in India.
  13. About 80% of the coal deposits in India is of bituminous type and is non-coking grade.
  14. The most important Gondwana coal fields of India are located in Damodar valley.
  15. Jharia is the largest coal field in India.
  16. Oil and Natural Gas Commission – 1956.
  17. Atomic Energy Commission set up in 1948.
  18. Brown diamond means Lignite coal.
  19. Tarapur is the first Atomic Energy station in India.
  20. Okhla in Delhi is Bio-energy resources project started.  

Minerals and energy resources

These minerals and energy resources are very important for our developmental activities.

  • Different parts of Indian subcontinents are very rich in different kinds of minerals.
  • A mineral means natural organic or inorganic substances with specific physical or chemical properties.
  • There are mainly two types of minerals like metallic or non-metallic.
  • Metallic minerals are two types: ferrous and nonferrous.
  • Iron ore and manganese are the example of ferrous metallic minerals.
  • Copper and bauxite are the example of non ferrous metallic minerals.
  • Coal, petroleum and natural gas are the example of non metallic fuel minerals.
  • Mica, limestone and graphite are the example of other types of non metallic minerals.
  • Important characteristics of minerals:

    • Minerals are exhaustible.
    • It takes millions of years for the formation.
    • Good quality minerals are very less amount than bad qualities.
    • It is very important to preserve these valuable minerals.
  • The region of the Damodar, Son, Mahanadi and Godavari river valleys contain about 97% of the total coal reserve of India.
  • Dharwar systems of rocks are found in Aravalli in Rajasthan and part of Gujarat.
  • Kerala has rich deposits of thorium and monazite and bauxite clay.
  • Goa has rich deposits of iron ore. (Minerals and Energy Resources)
  • Rajasthan is rich in granite, sandstone and marble.
  • Dolomite and limestone are very important for cement industries.
  • Gujarat is famous for petroleum deposits.
  • India has mainly two types of iron ore – magnetite and hematite.

  • Odisha, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu together contains about 95% of total iron ore reserve of our country, India.
  • Mayurbhanj, Gua, Kendujhar, Durg, Chandrapur, Bailadila, Ratnagiri, Bellari, Chitradurg, Tumkur and Kudremukh atc. are the important iron ore mines in India. (Not only this, These are very important for map pointing).
  • Sundergarh, Kendujhar, Balaghat, Nagpur, Bhandara and Shimoga are some example of manganese mines (important for map pointing).
  • Khetri, Alwar, Bhilwar, Udaipur, Hazaribagh, Singbhum, Balaghat etc. are some examples of copper mines.
  • katni, Amarkantak, Bilashpur, Maikala hill, and Koraput are some examples of bauxite mines.
  • Neyveli, Singareni, Korba, Talcher, Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Singarauli and Moran etc. are some example of coal mines.

Note: So many above mentioned mines are very important for short questions and map pointing. But, really this is not very easy to remember all the mines location on the Indian map. Here, your routine wise practice can solve this problem. Just practice everyday and remember that points after closing your eyes. In this way you can do best map pointing as well as short questions.

Minerals and Energy Resources

1. India is endowed with a rich variety of mineral resources due to its varied geological structure, mainly associated to the ——————-part of our country.  (Minerals and Energy Resources)
a. Himalayan
b. North-Eastern
c . Peninsular
d. North-Eastern
Ans. (c)
2. Which of the following geological structure of India is devoid of minerals of economic use?
a. Vast alluvial plain
b. Peninsular plateau
c . Chhotanagpur plateau region
d. North- Western
Ans. (a)

3. Which of the following is an example of ferrous minerals? (Minerals and Energy Resources)

a. Copper
b. Manganese
c . Bauxite
d. Gold
Ans. (b)
4. Which of the following is not an example of ferrous minerals?
a. Iron ore
b. Manganese
c . Cobalt
d. Bauxite
Ans. (d)
5. Which of the following minerals is associated with the organic origin?
a. Fossil fuels
b. Mica
c . Lime stone
d. Graphite
Ans. (a)

6. What percent of coal reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone, Mahanadi and Godavari?

a. 67
b. 97
c. 87
d. 95
7. Which of the following regions is not associated with the availability of petroleum?
a. Assam
b. Gujarat
c . Mumbai High
d. Madhya Pradesh
Ans. (d)
8. Which of the following is not matched correctly?
MINERALS BELT SUB-REGION
a. The north eastern plateau region – Chhota Nagpur
b. The south-western plateau region – Karnataka
c. The South-Western region – Maharashtra
d. The north-western region – Rajasthan (Aravalli)
Ans-(c)

9. The south-west plateau region is rich in which of the following minerals? (Minerals and Energy Resources)

a. Ferrous metals and bauxite
b. Mica and Graphite
c . Anthracite coal
d. Silver
Ans. (a)
10. Neyveli coal reserves are found in which of the following region?
a. North-east plateau region
b. South-west plateau region
c. North-western region
d. North-eastern states
Ans. (b)

11. Availability of which of the following minerals are associated with Kerala?

a. Monazite and thorium
b. Gypsum and thorium
c. Bauxite clay and Gypsum
d. Granite and gypsum
Ans. (a)
12. Match the column I with column II and choose the correct answer with the help of the given codes.
COLUMN I (STATES) COLUMN II (MOST AVAILABLE MINERAL)
I. Rajasthan – Lignite coal
II. Kerala – Petroleum reserves
III. Gujarat – Thorium
IV. Tamil Nadu – Sand stone
CodesI II III IV
a. 1 2 3 4
b. 2 1 3 4
c. 4 3 1 2
d. 4 3 2 1
Ans. (d)

13. Which of the following minerals are provided as raw materials for the cement industry ?

a. Gypsum and lead
b. Cobalt and limestone
c . Dolomite and limestone
d. Zinc and bronze
Ans. (c)
14. Which of the following fact is not true regarding the availability of iron ore in India ?
a. India has the largest reserve of iron ore in Asia
b. Most of reserves of iron ore are found in West Bengal
c. It has great demand in international market due to its superior quality
d. The iron ore mines occur in close proximity to the coal fields in the north-eastern plateau region of the country which adds to their advantage
Ans. (b)

15. Which of the following mines are not associated with Odisha?  (Minerals and Energy Resources)

a. Badampahar
b. Rajahra
c . Sulaipet
d. Gurumahisani
Ans. (b)
16. Match the column I with column II and choose the correct answer with the help of given Codes.
COLUMN I (STATES) COLUMN II (NAME OF MINE)
I. Odisha 1. Bailadila
II. Jharkhand 2. Chandrapur
III. Karnataka 3. Karimnagar
IV. Maharashtra 4. Mayurbhanj
V. Tamil Nadu 5. Kudremukh
VI. Telangana 6. Salem
Codes I II III IV V VI
a. 4 1 5 2 6 3
b. 1 2 3 4 5 6
c. 6 5 4 3 2 1
d. 2 1 4 3 5 6
Ans. (a)

17. What is the use of manganese among the following?  (Minerals and Energy Resources)

a. Production of energy
b. Smelting of iron
c. Manufacturing of aluminum
d. Production of thermal power
18. Which of the following states are the leading producer of manganese and bauxite?
a. Tamil Nadu
b. Jharkhand
c . Odisha
d. West Bengal
Ans. (c)

19. Consider the following statements and choose the correct answers with the help of given options.

1. Mineral fuels are essential for generation of power
2. Power is required for agriculture, industry, transport and other sectors of economy.
Options
a. Both statements 1 and 2 are correct and related to each other as well
b. Both statements 1 and 2 are correct but not related to each other
c. Only statement 2 is correct
d. Only statement 1 is correct
Ans. (a)
20. Which of the following is not an example of conventional source of energy ?
a. Coal
b. Petroleum
c . Geo thermal energy
d. Natural gas
Ans. (c)

21. The most important Gondwana coal fields of India are located in———————–.

a. Cauvery Valley
b. Damodar Valley
c . Mahanadi Valley
d. Narmada Valley
Ans. (b)
22. Which of the following method is still used by Singareni collieries, the country’s premier coal production company to detect the presence of deadly carbon monoxide in underground mines?
a. Canaries
b. Squadron
c. Instruments equipped with high technology
d. Cat
Ans. (a)

23. Which of the following is the oldest oil producing region of India?  (Minerals and Energy Resources)

a. Ankaleshwar
b. Digboi
c. Mumbai High
d. Naharkatiya
Ans. (b)
24. Which of the following is not an eco-friendly source of energy?
a. Solar energy
b. Wind energy
c. Petroleum
d. Geo-thermal energy
Ans. (c)

25. Consider the following statements, find cause and effect relationship between these two and choose the correct answer from the given options.

1. Solar thermal technology has some relative advantages over all other non-renewable energy sources.
2. It is cost competitive, environment friendly and easy to construct.
Option
a. Only statement 2 is correct
b. Only statement 1 is correct
c. Both statements are correct and statement 2 correctly explains statement 1.
d. Both statements are correct but not related to each other
Ans. (c)

26. Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer from the given options.

1. The Ministry of Non-conventional Sources of Energy is developing wind energy in India to lessen the burden of import bill.
2. The country’s potential of wind power generation exceeds 50,000 megawatts.
Options
a. Both the statements 1 and 2 are correct and related with each other
b. Both the statements are incorrect
c. Only statement 2 is correct
d. Only statement 1 is correct
Ans. (a)
27. In which of the following states, favorable conditions for wind energy do not exist?
a. Rajasthan
b. Gujarat
c. Maharashtra
d. Uttar Pradesh
Ans. (d)

28. The project that is helpful to convert municipal waste into energy is located in————-

a. New Delhi (Okhla)
b. Aligarh
c. Gurgaon
d. Chandigarh
Ans. (a)
29. Geo-thermal energy producing plant is located in which of the following states of India?
a. Jammu and Kashmir
b. Himachal Pradesh
c . Manipur
d. Rajasthan
Ans. (b)

30. Match the column I with column II and choose the correct answer with the help of given

Codes.
COLUMN I (STATES) COLUMN II (NUCLEAR ENERGY PLANTS)
I. Maharashtra 1. Kalpakkam
II. Rajasthan 2. Naroura
III. Tamil Nadu 3. Tarapore
IV. Uttar Pradesh 4. Kaiga
V. Karnataka 5. Kakrapara
VI. Gujarat 6. Rawatbhata
CodesI II III IV V VI
a. 3 6 1 2 4 5
b. 1 2 3 4 5 6
c. 6 5 4 3 2 1
d. 1 4 3 2 5 6
Ans. (a)

31. Which of the following regions is not associated with the availability of tertiary coal?

a. Assam
b. Arunachal Pradesh
c . Jharkhand
d. Meghalaya
Ans. (c)
32. Match the column I with column II and choose the correct answers with the help of given Codes.
COLUMN I (STATES) COLUMN II (COAL MINES)
I. Jharkhand 1. Chanda- Vardha
II. Madhya Pradesh 2. Singrauli
III. Odisha 3. Korba
IV. Chhattisgarh 4. Talcher
V. Maharashtra 5. Giridih
Codes
I II III IV V
a. 1 2 3 4 5
b. 5 2 4 3 1
c. 5 4 3 2 1
d. 5 4 2 3 1
Ans. (b)

33. Which of the following is the largest coal field in India ?

a. Jharia
b. Raniganj
c . Bokaro
d. Singrauli
Ans. (a)
34. Patlands of Lohardaga district in Jharkhand is rich in which of the following minerals?
a. Mica
b. Bauxite
c . Copper
d. Manganese
Ans. (b)

35. Consider the following statements and choose the correct answer from the given options?

I. The vast alluvial plain tract of north India is devoid of minerals of economic use.
II. The mineral resources provide the country with the necessary base for industrial Development.
Options
a. Only statement I is correct
b. Only statement II is correct
c. Both the statement I and II are correct and also related with present context
d. Both the statement are incorrect
Ans. (c)
36. Minerals of which of the following belts are associated with the rocks of Dharwar
system?
a. North-eastern plateau region
b. South-western plateau region
c. North-western region
d. North-eastern hilly region
Ans. (c)

37. In India, systematic surveying, prospecting, and exploration for minerals is not undertaken by which of the following agency ?

a. Geological Survey of India (GSI)
b. Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC)
c. National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC)
d. National Highway Authority of India (NHAI)
Ans. (d)

 

1. What is sustainable development ?
Ans :- Sustainable development is an organizing principle for meeting human development goals while also sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services on which the economy and society depend.
2. Write any three measures to conserve resources.
Ans :- a. Search of alternative resources (eg – non-conventional source of energy )
b. Use of scrap metals
c. Recycling of metals
3. Why conventional sources of energy must be conserved ?
Ans :- As conventional sources of energy are exhaustible and their stock is limited .

Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question 1. Define minerals.
Answer: A mineral is a natural substance of organic or inorganic origin with definite chemical and physical properties.
Question 2. Give examples of non-metallic minerals.
Answer: Fossil fuels, mica, limestone, graphite etc.
Question 3. Name ferrous minerals.
Answer: All the minerals which contain iron come under this category. Like – Iron ore, anganese, chromite etc.
Question 4. What are the main types of iron found in our country?
Answer: Haematite and Magnetite.
Question 5. Which state is the leading producer of manganese?
Answer: Odisha is the leading producer of manganese.
Question 6. Name the manganese fields of Karnataka.
Answer: Karnataka is a major producer of manganese and here the mines are located in Dharwar, Ballari, Belagavi, North Canara, Chikkmagaluru, Shivamogga, Chitradurg and Tumkur.
Question 7. What are the uses of mica?
Answer: Used in electrical and electronic industries and also as an insulator.
Question 8. Which is the ore for aluminium? Which state is the largest producer?
Answer: Bauxite is the ore for aluminium. Odisha is the largest producer.
Question 9. Where is copper found in India?
Answer: Copper deposits mainly occur in Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, Balaghat district in Madhya Pradesh and Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts in Rajasthan. Minor deposits in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
Question 10. What are canaries used for?
Answer: Singareni collieries, the country’s premier coal production company, still uses canaries to detect the presence of deadly carbon monoxide in underground mines.
Question 11. Which are the two top coalfields of India?
Answer: Jharia and Raniganj.
Question 12. What are the uses of petroleum?
Answer: It is an essential source of energy for all internal combustion engines in automobiles, railways and aircraft. Its numerous by-products are processed in petrochemical industries such a fertiliser, synthetic rubber, synthetic fibre, medicines, vaseline, lubricants, wax, soap and cosmetics.
Question 13. Which mineral is referred to as liquid gold? why?
Answer: Petroleum is referred to as liquid gold because of its scarcity and diversified uses.
Question 14. Which agency looks after the transport and marketing of natural gas? When was it set up?
Answer: The Gas Authority of India Limited was set up in 1984 as a public sector undertaking to look after the transport and marketing of natural gas.
Question 15. How is solar energy generated?
Answer: Sun rays tapped in photovoltaic cells can be converted into energy, known as solar energy. The two effective processes considered to be very effective to tap solar energy are photovoltaics and solar thermal technology.
Question 16. Name the sources of non-conventional sources of energy.
Answer: Solar, wind, bio, tidal and wave, geo thermal.
Question 17. Name the states with high potential for wind energy.
Answer: Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka have favourable conditions to develop wind energy.
Question 18. Why is India endowed with a rich variety of mineral resources?
Answer: India is endowed with a rich variety of mineral resources due to its varied geological structure. Bulk of the valuable minerals are products of pre-palaezoic age and are mainly associated with metamorphic and igneous rocks of the peninsular India.
Question 19. Why do we need minerals for economic development?
Answer: Industrial development of a country depends on availability of minerals and economic development depends on industrial development. Therefore, we need minerals for economic development.
Question 20. How are minerals classified?
Answer: Minerals are classified on the basis of their physical and chemical properties. Metallic minerals Non-metallic minerals.
Question 21. Name the area lacking natural resources.
Answer: The vast alluvial plain tract of north India is devoid of minerals of economic use.
Question 22. There is inverse relationship between quantity and quality of minerals. Explain the statement.
Answer: It means that good quality minerals are less in quantity as compared to low quality minerals.
Question 23. Where are majority of minerals found in India?
Answer: Most of the metallic minerals in India occur in the peninsular plateau region in the old crystalline rocks.
Question 24. In which of the river valleys important coal reserves are found?
Answer: Over 97 per cent of coal reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Son, Mahanadi and Godavari.
Question 25. Give the distribution of bauxite ore.
Answer: Bauxite is produced in the following states. Odisha is the largest producer. Kalahandi and Sambalpur are the leading producers. Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, M.P. and Maharashtra. Balaghat in M.P.
Question 26. Name the areas where natural gas is found.
Answer: Natural gas is found in: Eastern Coast (Tamil Nadu, Odisha, and Adhra Pradesh) Tripura, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra
Question 27. Name the nuclear power plant affected by tsunami which has recently been resumed.
Answer: Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu.
Question 28. Where are the richest monazite deposits found?
Answer: Monazite reserves are found in Palakkad and Kollam districts of Kerala, Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and Mahanadi river delta in Odisha.
Question 29. When was the first Atomic Energy Commission established and where?
Answer: Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1948; while the Atomic Energy Institute at Trombay was established in 1954, which was renamed as the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1967.
Question 30. Name the important features of non- conventional energy sources.
Answer: Important features of non-conventional energy sources are: Equitable distribution Environment friendly More sustained eco-friendly and cheaper after initial cost is taken care of.
Question 31. Solar energy is the hope of future. Discuss.
Answer: Solar energy is the hope of future because it is: Cost competitive Environment friendly
Question 32. What are the advantages of bio-energy?
Answer: Enhance self-reliance Reduce environmental pollution Reduce pressure on fuel wood Conversion of municipal waste into energy.
Question 33. Why do we need to conserve resources?
Answer: They are limited in number, Exhaustible More time to replenish For sustainable development
Question 34. Write two important uses of coal.
Answer: Generation of thermal power Smelting of iron ore for steel
Question 35. When was the first geo-thermal energy usage attempt made? Is there any geo-thermal plant in India?
OR
Where was the first underground heat tapped?
Answer: The first successful (1890) attempt to tap the underground heat was made in the city of Boise, Idaho (U.S.A.), where a hot water pipe network was built to give heat to the surrounding buildings. This plant is still working. In India, a geothermal energy plant has
been commissioned at Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Which are the prospective areas of natural gases in India?
Answer: Natural gas is obtained alongwith oil in all the oil fields but exclusive reserves have been located along the eastern coast as well as (Tamil Nadu, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh), Tripura, Rajasthan and off-shore wells in Gujarat and Maharashtra.
2. List the major nuclear power stations along with the states.
Answer: The important nuclear power projects are Tarapur (Maharashtra), Rawatbhata near Kota (Rajasthan), Kalpakkam(Tamil Nadu), Narora (Uttar Pradesh), Kaiga (Karnataka) and Kakarapara (Gujarat).
3. What are the advantages of solar energy?
Answer: Solar thermal technology has some relative advantages over all other nonrenewable energy sources. It is cost competitive, environment friendly and easy to construct. Solar energy is 7 per cent more effective than coal or oil based plants and 10 per cent more effective than nuclear plants. It is generally used more in appliances like heaters, crop dryers, cookers, etc. The western part of India has greater potential for the development of solar energy in Gujarat and Rajasthan.
4. How is geothermal energy tapped? OR What is the source of geothermal energy?
Answer: When the magma from the interior of earth, comes out on the surface, tremendous heat is released. This heat energy can successfully be tapped and converted to electrical energy. Apart from this, the hot water that gushes out through the geyser wells is also used in the generation of thermal energy. It is popularly known as Geothermal energy. This energy is now considered to be one of the key
energy sources which can be developed as an alternate source. The hot springs and geysers are being used since medieval period.
5. Name the agencies involved in exploration of minerals.
Answer: Geological Survey of India (GSI), Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC), Mineral Exploration Corporation Ltd. (MECL), National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC), Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM), Bharat Gold Mines Ltd. (BGML), Hindustan Copper Ltd. (HCL), National Aluminium Company Ltd. (NALCO) and the Departments of Mining and Geology undertake systematic surveying, prospecting and exploration for minerals in various states.
6. Where are majority of petroleum reserves found?
Answer: Petroleum reserves are located in the sedimentary basins of Assam, Gujarat and Mumbai High, i.e. off-shore region in the Arabian Sea. New reserves have been located in the Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basins.
7. Write the uses of petroleum.
Answer: Uses of petroleum are as follows: Essential source of energy for all internal combustion engines in automobiles, railways and
aircrafts. By-products are processed in petro chemical industries such as fertilisers, synthetic rubber, synthetic fibre, medicines, vaseline, lubricants wax, soap and cosmetic.
8. Give the distribution of petroleum reserves in India.
Answer: Crude petroleum occurs in sedimentaryrocks of the tertiary period. Before 1956, Digboi in Assam was the only oil producing region. But now in Assam, Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran are important. Oilfields of Gujarat are Ankleshwar, Mehsana, etc. Mumbai High which lies 160 km off Mumbai was discovered in 1973. Natural gas have been found in exploratory wells in Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basin on the east coast.
9. Name the important belts of mineral reserves in India.
Answer: Minerals are generally concentrated in three broad belts in India. The North-Eastern Plateau Region: Chotanagpur (Jharkhand), Odisha Plateau, West Bengal and parts of Chhattisgarh. The South-Western Plateau Region: Karnataka, Goa and contiguous Tamil Nadu
uplands and Kerala. The North-Western Region: Aravali in Rajasthan and part of Gujarat
10. Write the uses and distribution of mica.
Answer: Uses: Di-electric property Voltage resistant distribution Distribution: Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan followed by Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, M.P. and Nellore district have the best quality mica.
11. What is bio-energy? State four advantages of bio-energy.
Ans. Bio-energy refers to energy derived from biological products which includes agricultural residues, along with municipal, industrial and other works.
Advantages:
(i) It is a potential source of energy conversion.
(ii) It can be converted into electrical energy, heat energy or gas for cooking.
(iii) It can process waste to produce energy.
(iv) It reduces environmental pollution.
12. Distinguish between Ferrous and Non-ferrous minerals.
Ans: Ferrous Minerals Non-Ferrous Minerals
1. The metallic minerals which contain iron content are called ferrous minerals (Fe).
2. Iron, Manganese, Chromites, Cobalt, etc. Are Ferrous minerals.
3. These are used in Iron and Steel industry.
Some minerals are used as alloys in making different types of steel
1. The minerals which do not contain iron (ferrous) content are called nonferrous minerals.
2. Copper. Lead, Zinc, Aluminium is non ferrous minerals.
3. Each mineral has its particular utility.
Some minerals are valuable according to their uses.
13. Distinguish between Metallic and Non-metallic minerals.
Or
Classify minerals on the basis of chemical and physical properties.
Ans. Metallic Minerals Non-metallic minerals
1. Metallic minerals are those minerals which obtain new products.
2. Iron, Copper, Bauxite, Tin, and Manganese are some examples
3. These are generally associated with Sedimentary and Igneous rocks.
4. These can be reused after melting
1. Non-metallic minerals are those which do not can be melted to yield new products on melting
2. Coal, Salt, Clay, and Marble are some examples.
3. These are generally associated with rocks.
4 These cannot be used after melting
Q. 14. Distinguish between Rock and Mineral ore.
Ans.

Rock  Mineral Ore
A mineral is a natural inorganic compound found in the rocks.  
1. A rocks a natural Solid material forming the earth crustes. 1 A mineral is a natural inorganic compound found in the rocks.
2. A rock is an aggregate of minerals such as granite, marble, etc. 2. Some rocks contain and only one mineral and are called mineral ores such as iron ore.
3. A rock does not have a definite chemical com position 3 It has definite chemical.al composition
4. RocK are mainly of three typesIgneous, Sedimentary Metamorphic and only one mineral and are called mineral ores 4 There are about 2000 types of minerals.
   
   
   
   

14. “The non-conventional sources of energy will provide more sustained, eco-friendly and cheaper energy, if the initial cost is take care of.” Examine the statement.
Ans. Today non-conventional sources of energy include wind, tides, geothermal heat, biogas, farm and animal waste including human excreta. All these sources are renewable and inexhaustible. They are inexpensive in nature. These are pollution free. These help in decentralisation of industries. Energy can be developed in rural area. These can be developed and maintained at low costs. Due to acute shortage of conventional sources of energy, it has become necessary to explore the possibilities of using non-conventional sources of energy. These resources are more equitably distributed and environmental-friendly. These will provide more sustainable, eco- friendly and cheaper energies.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Why is conservation of resources essential? Suggest steps to conserve minerals.
Answer: In order to achieve economic development with least environmental impact, the goals of sustainable development must be kept in mind in order to protect the future generations. There is an urgent need to conserve the resources.
The alternative energy sources like solar power, wind, wave, geothermal energy are inexhaustible resource. These should be developed to replace the exhaustible resources.
In case of metallic minerals, use of scrap metals will enable recycling of metals. Use of scrap is specially significant in metals like copper, lead and zinc in which India’s reserves are meagre. Use of substitutes for scarce metals may also reduce their consumption.
Export of strategic and scarce minerals must be reduced, so that the existing reserve may be used for a longer period.
2. Describe the development of nuclear energy in India and challenges in its growth.
Answer: Nuclear energy has emerged as a viable source in recent times. Important minerals used for the generation of nuclear energy are uranium and thorium. Uranium deposits occur in the Dharwar rocks. These are known to occur in several locations along the Singbhum Copper belt. It is also found in Udaipur, Alwar and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, Durg district of Chhattisgarh, Bhandara district of Maharashtra and Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh. Thorium is mainly obtained from monazite and lignite in the sands of beach along the coasts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. World’s richest monazite deposits occur in Palakkad and Kollam districts ofKerala, near Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and Mahanadi river delta in Odisha.
3. Write a note on the three belts of mineral distribution.
Answer: Minerals are generally concentrated in three broad belts in India. These belts are:

The North-Eastern Plateau Region: This belt covers Chhotanagpur (Jharkhand), Odisha Plateau, West Bengal and parts of Chhattisgarh. It has variety of minerals—iron ore, coal, manganese, bauxite, mica.

The South-Western Plateau Region: This belt extends from Karnataka, Goa and contiguous Tamil Nadu uplands and Kerala. It is rich in ferrous metals and bauxite. It also contains high grade iron ore, manganese and limestone. This belt lacks in coal deposits except Neyveli lignite. Kerala has deposits of monazite and thorium, bauxite clay. Goa has iron ore deposits.

The North-Western Region: This belt extends along Aravali in Rajasthan and part of Gujarat and minerals are associated with Dharwar system of rocks. Copper, zinc have been major minerals. Rajasthan is rich in building stones i.e. sandstone, granite, marble.
Gypsum and Fuller’s earth deposits are also extensive. Dolomite and limestone provide raw materials for cement industiy. Gujarat is known for its petroleum deposits. Gujarat and Rajasthan have rich sources of salt.

The Himalayan belt: It is another mineral belt where copper, lead, zinc, cobalt and tungsten are known to occur. Assam valley has mineral oil deposits. Oil resources are also found in off-shore- areas near Mumbai Coast (Mumbai High).
4 Distinguish between conventional & non-conventional sources of energy.
Answer:  

Conventional energy Non-Conventional energy
(i) This energy is in use for a long period of time. (i) These sources have been recently introduced on a commercial scale.
(ii) Fossil fuel sources, such as coal, petroleum, natural gas and nuclear energy are the main sources. (ii) Solar, wind, hydro, geothermal and biomass are the main sources.
(iii) These are exhaustible raw materials (iii) These are sustainable energy resourceswhich are inexhaustible sources of energy.
(iv) These are concentrated in particular locations and are limited. (iv) These energy sources are more equitably distributed and are abundant in nature.
(v) These sources cause pollution and harm the environment. (v) They are environmental friendly. They provide more sustained, eco-friendly cheaper energy after the initial cost is taken care of.
(vi) Both the construction and running cost is high. (vi) Initial cost is high but the running cost is low.

5. Describe the Iron ore belt of India’.
Ans. The total reserves of iron ore in the country were about 28.52 billion tonnes in the year 2012. About 95 per cent of total reserves of iron ore is located in the States of Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
(1) In Odisha, iron ore occurs in a series of hill ranges in Sundergarh, Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar. The important mines are Gorumahisani, Sulaipet, Badampahar (Mayurbhanj), Kiriburu (Kendujhar) and Bonai (Sundergarh).
(2) Similar hill ranges such as Jharkhand have some of the oldest iron ore mines and most of the iron and steel plants are located around them. Most of the important mines such as Noamandi and Gua are located in Poorbi and PashchimiSinghbhum districts.
(3) This belt further extends to Durg, Dantewada and Bailadila. Dalli, and Rajhara in Durg are the important mines of iron ore in the country.
(4) In Karnataka, iron ore deposits occur in Sandur-Hospet area of Bellary district, Baba Budan hills and Kudremukh in Chikmagalur district and parts of Shimoga, Chitradurga and Tumkur districts.
(5) The districts of Chandrapur, Bhandara and Ratnagiri in Maharashtra.
(6) Karimnagar, Warangal, Kurnool, Cuddapah and Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh.
(7) Salem and Nilgiris districts of Tamil Nadu are other iron mining regions.
(8) Goa has also emerged as an important producer of iron ore.
MAP WORK:
Mines:
Iron-ore mines: Mayurbhanj (Odisha), Bailadila (Chhattisgarh), Ratnagiri (Maharashtra), and Bellary (Karnataka)
Manganese mines: Kendujhar, Sundergarh, Koraput, Kalahandi (Odisha), Balaghat (Madhya Pradesh) Shivamogga (Karnataka)
Copper mines: Hazaribagh & Singhbhum (Jharkhand), and Khetari (Rajasthan)
Bauxite mines: Kalahandi and Sambalpur, and Koraput (Odisha), Katni (Madhya Pradesh), Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh
Coal mines: Jharia & Bokaro (Jharkhand), Raniganj (West Bengal), and Neyveli (Tamil Nadu)
Oil Refineries: Mathura (Uttar Pradesh), Jamnager (Gujarat), Baroni (Bih

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