Water Resources- Class 12

Water Resources

India accounts for about 2.45% of worlds surface area, 4% of the water resources and about 16% of world’s population. The total utilizable water resource in the country is only 1122 cubic km. This water resources related important points are as follows:

  • Which percentage of the Earth is covered with water?
    Answer: 71%.
  • Mention any two States where groundwater level utilization is very high?
    Answer: Punjab and Haryana.
  • Which sector grounds for most of the surface and ground water utilisation?
    Answer: Agriculture.
  • Why is irrigation required?

    Answer: Because of spatio temporal variability in rainfall in the country.

  • In which state major part of the irrigation is carried out by well and tubewells?
    Answer: Gujarat.
  • Mention two highly polluted river of our country.
    Answer: Ganga and Yamuna.
  • What is the local name of rainwater harvesting structure in Rajasthan?
    Answer: Kund aur Tanka.
  • Who has sponsored Hariyali program?
    Answer: Central Government of India.
  • “Aravali Pani Sansad” launched in Rajasthan.
  • Irrigation by tube well and wells – 76.1% in Punjab and 51.3%in Haryana.
  • What is the full form of CPCB?
    Answer: The full form of CPCB is the central pollution control board.
  • The central government of India sposored Haryali and it is a watershed development project.
  • Neeru-Meeru (Water and You) programme (in Andhra Pradesh) and Arvary Pani Sansad (in Alwar, Rajasthan) have taken up constructions of various water harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, dug out ponds, check dams etc.

Water Resources

1. India shares what percent of world’s water resources?
a. 4 %
b. 2 %
c. 2.4 %
d. 1 %
Ans. (a)
2. How much water is available from surface water and replenish able ground water in India?
a. 1879 cubic km
b. 1869 cubic km
c. 1889 cubic km
d. 1899 cubic km
Ans. (b)
3. The total utilizable water resources in the country is only————–cubic km.
a. 1123
b. 1122
c. 1132
d. 1125
Ans. (b)

4. Much of the annual water flow of which of the following rivers has not been harnessed?

a. Godavari
b. Krishna
c. Kaveri
d. Brahmaputra
Ans. (d)
5. In which of the following states, the groundwater utilization is very high?
a. Punjab
b. Maharashtra
c . Bihar
d. Gujarat
Ans. (a)
6. Which of the following groups of states utilize groundwater the most?
a. Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Tripura
b. Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu
c. Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Kerala, Bihar
d. Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Tripura, Maharashtra

7. The lagoons of states like Kerala, Odisha and West Bengal are not utilized to which of the following purpose?

a. Fishing
b. Irrigating certain varieties of paddy crops
c. Irrigation of coconut
d. For drinking purpose in house hold
8. Which of the following sectors utilize most of the surface and ground water?
a. Agriculture
b. For hydroelectricity
c . Industries
d. House hold
9. Which of the following areas of our country are deficient in rainfall and are drought
a. North- eastern states
b. Deccan Plateau
c . Gangetic Plain
d. Brahmaputra valley
10. Which of the following crops does not require much water to grow?
a. Rice
b. Sugarcane
c . Jute
d. Bajra
Ans. (d)

11. Which of the following groups of states observed the successful strategy of Green revolution of agricultural development?

a. Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh
b. Punjab, Gujarat and Rajasthan
c. Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan
d. Punjab, Haryana and Gujarat
Ans. (a)
12. What percent of net sown area in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh is under
a. 88 %
b. 85 %
c. 89 %
d. 81 %
Ans. (b)
13. Provision of irrigation makes ———————–possible.
a. Humidity
b. Agriculture
c. Multiple cropping
d. Green revolution
Ans. (c)

14. Consider the following and choose the correct answers from the given options.

I. Over withdrawals of groundwater in Rajastan and Maharashtra increased fluoride Concentration.
II. This practice has led to increase in concentration of arsenic in parts of West Bengal and Bihar.
a. Only statement I is correct
b. Only statement II is correct
c. Both I and II are correct
d. Both statements are wrong
Ans. (c)
15. What is the negative impact of intensive irrigation in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Western U.P.?
a. Increasing salinity in the soil
b. Increased soil erosion
c. Soil become alkaline
d. Decreasing of soil fertility
Ans. (a)

16. Consider and evaluate the following statements and choose the correct answer from the given options.

I. The availability of usable water is limiting day by day.
II. The available water resource is getting polluted due to increase in population, industrial, agricultural and domestic effluents.
a. Only statement II is correct
b. Both are correct. Statement II correctly explains statement I
c. Both are correct but not related to each other
d. Both are wrong
Ans. (b)
17. Which of the following are the most polluted rivers of the country?
a. Ganga and Brahmaputra
b. Ganga and Godavari
c. Ganga and Yamuna
d. Yamuna and Brahmaputra
Ans. (b)

18. Which of the following is not a cause of water pollution?   (Water Resources)

a. Micro- bacteria
b. Chemical wastes
c. Industrial wastes
d. Soil erosion
Ans. (d)
19. Match the column I with column II and choose the correct answer with the help of given Codes.
I Yamuna 1. Hyderabad
II Kali 2. Kanpur and Varanasi
III Gomati 3. Ahmedabad
IV Sabarmati 4. Lucknow
V Ganga 5. Madurai
VI Musi 6. Delhi and Etawah
a. 6 5 4 3 2 1
b. 1 2 3 4 5 6
c. 6 5 3 4 1 2
d. 2 3 1 5 4 6
Ans. (a)

20. Which of the following programs sponsored by central government aims at enabling the rural population to conserve water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries and afforestation?

a. Arvary Pani Sansad
b. Haryali
c . Neeru-Meeru
d . Narmada bachao
Ans. (b)
21. Neeru-Meeru (water and You ) program is associated with which of the following states ?
a. Andhra Pradesh
b. Karnataka
c. Rajasthan
d. Tamil Nadu
Ans. (a)
22. In which of the following states the share of area irrigated through wells and tube wells is
very high ?
a. Rajasthan
b. Maharashtra
c . Gujarat
d. Madhya Pradesh
Ans. (c)

23. Which of the following rainwater harvesting structures have not been constructed under Arvary Pani Sansad Program ?

a. Percolation tanks
b. Dug out ponds
c . Check dams
d. Wells
Ans. (d)
24. Which of the following states made compulsory to install rainwater harvesting system while constructing houses or buildings?
a. Tamil Nadu
b. Karnataka
c. Kerala
d. Andhra Pradesh
Ans. (a)
25. In Rajasthan rainwater harvesting structures locally known as—————–are constructed.
a. Johada
b. Kund and Tanka
c. Kul or gul
d. Percolation pits

26.Which of the following is not the benefit of rain water harvesting?  (Water Resources)

a. It increases water availability
b. It checks the declining ground water table
c. It improves the quality of ground water through dilution of contaminants like fluoride and nitrates
d. Helpful in production of hydro electricity
Ans. (d)
27. Which of the following is the aim of watershed management program ?
a. Bringing about balance between natural resources on the one hand and society on the other
b. Grow more and more trees
c. Digging of well for rain water harvesting
d. Distribution of water equally among all the sections of society
Ans. (a)

28. Which of the following method is not associated with watershed management program ?

a. Percolation tanks
b. recharge of ground water
c. recharge wells
d. Tube wells
Ans. (d)
29. In India water is mainly used for which of the following purposes ?
a. Rearing of livestock
b. Industries
c. Irrigation
d. Hydroelectricity generation
Ans. (c)
30. Which of the following agents are not the main source of pollution in rivers ?
a. Micro-organisms
b. Solid waste and garbage
c. Chemicals
d. Soil erosion
Ans. (d)

31. Which of the following pairs is not matched correctly ?  (Water Resources)

a. Water Act – 1974
b. Environment Protection Act – 1986
c. Water Cess Act – 1977
d. The central pollution control board – 1997
Ans (d)

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