Q1. What do you mean by agriculture?
Ans: Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Q2. What is sericulture, pisciculture, viticulture, horticulture?
Ans: i) Sericulture Pisciculture:
Commercial rearing of silk worms. It may supplement the income of the farmer.
Breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds.
Cultivation of grapes.
Growing vegetables, flowers and fruits for commercial use.
Q3. Discuss about different types of economic activities.
Ans: This transformation from a plant to a finished product involves three types of economic activities. These are primary, secondary and tertiary activities.
i) Primary activities:
It include all those connected with extraction and production of natural resources. Agriculture, fishing and gathering are good examples.
ii) Secondary activities:
These are concerned with the processing of these resources. Manufacturing of steel, baking of bread and weaving of cloth are examples of this activity.
iii) Tertiary activities:
These activities provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through services. Transport, trade, banking, insurance and advertising are examples of tertiary activities.
Q4. Discuss about different types of farming.
Ans: Farming is practised in various ways across the world. Depending upon the geographical conditions, demand of produce, labour and level of technology, farming can be classified into two main types. These are-
i) subsistence farming and
ii) commercial farming.
i) Subsistence farming: This type of farming is practised to meet the needs of the farmer’s family.
Subsistence farming can be further classified as –
a) intensive subsistence and
b) primitive subsistence farming.
a) In intensive subsistence agriculture the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour.
b) Primitive subsistence agriculture includes shifting cultivation and nomadic herding.
Shifting cultivation is also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. And. In this type of farming, herdsmen move from place to place with their animals for fodder and water, along defined routes.
ii) Commercial farming:
In commercial farming crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in market. Most of the work is done by machines. Commercial farming includes commercial grain farming, mixed farming and plantation agriculture Nomadic Herders with their camels In commercial grain farming crops are grown for commercial purpose. Wheat and maize are common commercially grown grains.
Major areas where commercial grain farming is pracised are temperate grasslands of North America, Europe and Asia.
Q5. Why shifting cultivation are also called as slash and burn cultivation?
And: A plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava are grown. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot. Shifting cultivation is also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
Q6. Write a short note on mixed farming.
Ans: In mixed farming the land is used for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock.
It is practised in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, southeast Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
Q7. What are the major aspects of agricultural development?
Ans: Agricultural Development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population.
This can be achieved in many ways such as,
i) increasing the cropped area,
ii) the number of crop grown,
iii) improving irrigation facilities,
iv) use of fertilisers and
v) high yielding variety of seeds.
vi) Mechanisation of agriculture is also another aspect of agricultural development.
The ultimate aim of agricultural development is to increase food security.Agriculture has developed at different places in different parts of the world. Developing countries with large populations usually practise intensive agriculture where crops are grown on small holdings mostly for subsistence.
Larger holdings are more suitable for commercial agriculture as in USA, Canada and Australia.
Q8. Differentiate between shifting cultivation and nomadic harding.
| Shifting Cultivation
1. Shifting cultivation is practised in the thickly forested areas of Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of southeast Asia and Northeast India.
2. A plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them for cultivation.
3. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava are grown.
4. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot.
5. These types of cultivations are practise only for their own needs.
Shifting cultivation is also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture
| Nomadic Harding
1. Nomadic herding is practised in the semi-arid and arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India, like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.
2. In this type of farming, herdsmen move from place to place with their animals for fodder and water, along defined routes.
3. Sheep, camel, yak and goats are most commonly reared.
4. There is no such kinds of opportunity.
5. They provide milk, meat, wool, hides and other products to the herders and their families.
Q9. Mention some major crops and their cultivated areas.
Major CropsA large variety of crops are grown to meet the requirement of the growing population. Major food crops are wheat, rice, maize and millets.
Rice is the major food crop of the world. China leads in the production of rice followed by India, Japan, Sri Lanka and Egypt.
Wheat is grown extensively in USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India.
They are also known as coarse grains and can be grown on less fertile and sandy soils. moderate temperature and adequate rainfall. Jowar, bajra and ragi are grown in India. Other countries are Nigeria, China and Niger.
Maize requires moderate temperature, rainfall and lots of sunshine. It needswell-drained fertile soils. Maize is grown in North America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India, and Mexico.
It grows best on black and alluvial soils. China, USA, India, Pakistan, Brazil and Egypt are the leading producers of cotton.
Jute was also known as the ‘Golden Fibre’. It grows well on alluvial soil and requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate. This crop is grown in the tropical areas. India and Bangladesh are the leading producers of jute.
Coffee requires warm and wet climate and well-drained loamy soil. Hill slopes are more suitable for growth of this crop. Brazil is the leading producer followed by Columbia and India.
It needs well-drained loamy soils and gentle slopes. Labour in large number is required to pick the leaves. Kenya, India, China, Sri Lanka produce the best quality tea in the world.
Q10. Discuss about the agricultural development in India.
Ans: Agricultural Development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population. This can be achieved in many ways:
I) Increasing the cropped area,
II) The number of crops grown,
III) Improving irrigation facilities,
IV) Use of fertilisers and high yielding variety of seeds.
V) Mechanisation of agriculture is also another aspect of agricultural development.
Q11. Explain the main aims of agricultural development with example.
Ans: The ultimate aim of agricultural development is to increase food security.
Developing countries with large populations usually practise intensive agriculture where crops are grown on small holdings mostly for subsistence.
Larger holdings are more suitable for commercial agriculture as in USA, Canada and Australia, where main aims of agriculture is to increase their commercial products and capitals.
Q12. What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
Ans: Shifting cultivation or slash-and-burn cultivation is a type of farming activity which involves clearing a plot of land by felling trees, burning the felled trees, mixing the ashes with soil, and then growing crops like maize, potatoes and cassava on the cleared land. After the soil loses its fertility, farmers shifts their agricultural field. This type of farming has the following disadvantages.
II) After some time the land loses its fertility.
III) Soil erosion.
IV) Small patches of cultivation which is insufficient for feeding a large population.
V) Slash and burn system causes environmental pollution.
VI) Farmers could not get more sufficient foods.
Q13. Differentiate between farming system in USA and India.
I) Farm size:
Farm size is much more larger in USA than India.
II) Production purpose:
Farming system is developed in USA mainly for commercial purposes, but in India mainly developed for fulfilling own needs.
III) Use of machineries:
High quality modern equipments are used in USA for farming, but not in India.
IV) Per capita production:
Per capita production is more in USA than India.
V) Per hectare production:
Per hectare production is more in India than USA.
VI) Pressure on land:
Population pressure on agricultural land is much more in India than USA.
VII) Use of fertilizer:
Comparatively use of fertilizer on farm is more in USA than India etc.