Agriculture – Class VIII

Agriculture - Class VIII
Q1. What do you mean by agriculture? (Agriculture – Class VIII)
Ans: Agriculture – (Class VIII) is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life. (Agriculture – Class VIII)
Q2. What is sericulture, pisciculture, viticulture, horticulture?
Ans: i) Sericulture Pisciculture:
Commercial  rearing of  silk  worms.  It  may supplement the income of the farmer.
ii) Pisciculture:
Breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds.
iii) Viticulture:
Cultivation of grapes.
iv) Horticulture:
Growing vegetables, flowers and fruits for commercial use.
Q3. Discuss about different types of economic activities.
Ans: This  transformation  from  a  plant  to  a  finished product  involves  three  types  of  economic  activities. These are primary, secondary and tertiary activities.
i) Primary  activities:
It include  all  those  connected with  extraction  and  production  of  natural  resources. Agriculture,  fishing  and  gathering  are  good  examples.
ii) Secondary  activities:
These are  concerned  with  the  processing of  these  resources.  Manufacturing  of  steel,  baking  of bread  and  weaving  of  cloth  are  examples  of  this  activity.
iii) Tertiary  activities:
These activities provide  support  to  the  primary  and secondary  sectors  through  services.  Transport,  trade, banking,  insurance  and  advertising  are  examples  of tertiary activities.
Q4. Discuss about different types of farming. (Agriculture – Class VIII)
Ans: Farming is practised in various ways across the world. Depending upon the geographical conditions, demand of produce, labour and level of technology, farming can be classified into two main types. These are-
i) subsistence farming and
ii) commercial farming.
i) Subsistence farming:
This type of farming is practised to meet the needs of the farmer’s family.
Subsistence farming can be further classified as –
a) intensive subsistence and
b) primitive subsistence farming.
a) In intensive subsistence agriculture the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour.
b) Primitive  subsistence  agriculture  includes  shifting cultivation and nomadic herding.
      Shifting  cultivation  is also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. And. In  this  type  of  farming,  herdsmen move  from  place  to  place  with  their  animals  for fodder  and  water,  along  defined  routes.
ii) Commercial farming:
In  commercial  farming    crops  are  grown  and  animals  are  reared  for  sale  in  market. Most  of  the  work  is  done  by  machines. Commercial  farming  includes  commercial grain  farming,  mixed  farming  and  plantation agriculture Nomadic Herders with their camels In  commercial  grain  farming  crops  are  grown for  commercial  purpose.  Wheat  and  maize  are common  commercially  grown  grains.
              Major areas  where  commercial  grain  farming  is pracised  are  temperate  grasslands  of  North  America, Europe  and  Asia.
Q5. Why shifting cultivation are also called as slash and burn cultivation?
And: A  plot  of  land  is  cleared  by  felling  the  trees  and  burning them.  The  ashes  are  then  mixed  with  the  soil  and  crops like  maize,  yam,  potatoes  and  cassava  are  grown.  After the  soil  loses  its  fertility,  the  land  is  abandoned  and  the cultivator  moves  to  a  new  plot.  Shifting  cultivation  is also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
 
Q6. Write a short note on mixed farming. (Agriculture – Class VIII)
Ans: In  mixed  farming  the  land  is  used  for  growing food and  fodder  crops  and  rearing  livestock.
It is practised in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, southeast Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
Q7. What are the major aspects of agricultural development?
Ans: Agricultural Development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population.
This can be achieved in many ways such as,
i) increasing the cropped area,
ii) the number of crop grown,
iii) improving irrigation facilities,
iv) use of fertilisers and
v) high yielding variety of seeds.
vi) Mechanisation of agriculture is also another aspect of agricultural development.
The ultimate aim of agricultural development is to increase food security.Agriculture has developed at different places in different parts of the world. Developing countries with large populations usually practise intensive agriculture where crops are grown on small holdings mostly for subsistence.
Larger holdings are more suitable for commercial agriculture as in USA, Canada and Australia.
 
Q8. Differentiate between shifting cultivation and nomadic Harding.
Ans: 
 Shifting Cultivation

1. Shifting  cultivation  is  practiced  in  the  thickly forested  areas  of  Amazon  basin,  tropical  Africa,  parts  of southeast  Asia  and  Northeast  India. 
2. A  plot  of  land  is  cleared  by  felling  the  trees  and  burning them for cultivation.
3. The  ashes  are  then  mixed  with  the  soil  and  crops like  maize,  yam,  potatoes  and  cassava  are  grown.
4. After the  soil  loses  its  fertility,  the  land  is  abandoned  and  the cultivator  moves  to  a  new  plot.
5. These types of cultivation are practice only for their own needs.
Shifting  cultivation  is also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture
Nomadic Harding

1. Nomadic  herding  is  practiced  in  the  semi-arid and  arid  regions  of  Sahara,  Central  Asia  and  some parts  of  India,  like  Rajasthan  and  Jammu  and Kashmir. 
2. In  this  type  of  farming,  herdsmen move  from  place  to  place  with  their  animals  for fodder  and  water,  along  defined  routes.
3. Sheep,  camel,  yak  and goats  are  most  commonly  reared.
4. There is no such kinds of opportunity.
5. They  provide milk,  meat,  wool,  hides  and  other  products  to the herders and their families.
Q9. Mention some major crops and their cultivated areas.
Ans:
Major CropsA large variety of crops are grown to meet the requirement of the growing population. Major food crops are wheat, rice, maize and millets.
I) Rice:
Rice is the major food crop of the world. China leads in the production of rice followed by India, Japan, Sri Lanka and Egypt.
II) Wheat:
Wheat is grown extensively in USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India.
III) Millets:
They are also known as coarse grains and can be grown on less fertile and sandy soils. moderate temperature and adequate rainfall. Jowar, bajra and ragi are grown in India. Other countries are Nigeria, China and Niger.
IV) Maize:
Maize requires moderate temperature, rainfall and lots of sunshine. It needswell-drained fertile soils. Maize is grown in North America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India, and Mexico.
V) Cotton:
It grows best on black and alluvial soils. China, USA, India, Pakistan, Brazil and Egypt are the leading producers of cotton.
VI) Jute:
Jute was also known as the ‘Golden Fibre’. It grows well on alluvial soil and requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate. This crop is grown in the tropical areas. India and Bangladesh are the leading producers of jute.
VII) Coffee:
Coffee requires warm and wet climate and well-drained loamy soil. Hill slopes are more suitable for growth of this crop. Brazil is the leading producer followed by Columbia and India.
VIII) Tea:
It needs well-drained loamy soils and gentle slopes. Labour in large number is required to pick the leaves. Kenya, India, China, Sri Lanka produce the best quality tea in the world.
Q10. Discuss about the agricultural development in India.
Ans: Agricultural Development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population. This can be achieved in many ways:
I) Increasing the cropped area,
II) The number of crops grown,
III) Improving irrigation facilities,
IV) Use of fertilisers and high yielding variety of seeds.
V) Mechanisation of agriculture is also another aspect of agricultural development.
Q11. Explain the main aims of agricultural development with example.
Ans: The ultimate aim of agricultural development is to increase food security.
    Developing countries with large populations usually practise intensive agriculture where crops are grown on small holdings mostly for subsistence.
    Larger holdings are more suitable for commercial agriculture as in USA, Canada and Australia, where main aims of agriculture is to increase their commercial products and capitals.
Q12. What is  shifting  cultivation?  What are  its  disadvantages?
Ans: Shifting  cultivation  or  slash-and-burn  cultivation  is  a  type  of  farming  activity  which  involves clearing  a  plot  of  land by  felling  trees, burning  the  felled  trees, mixing  the ashes  with  soil,  and then growing  crops  like  maize, potatoes  and  cassava  on  the  cleared  land.  After  the soil loses  its  fertility, farmers shifts their agricultural field. This  type  of  farming  has  the  following  disadvantages.
I) Deforestation
II) After  some  time  the land  loses  its  fertility.
III) Soil erosion.
IV) Small  patches  of  cultivation which  is  insufficient  for  feeding  a  large  population.
V) Slash and burn system causes environmental pollution.
VI) Farmers could not get more sufficient foods.
Q13. Differentiate between farming system in USA and India. (Agriculture – Class VIII)
Ans:
I) Farm size:
Farm size is much more larger in USA than India.
II) Production purpose:
Farming system is developed in USA mainly for commercial purposes, but in India mainly developed for fulfilling own needs.
III) Use of machineries:
High quality modern equipments are used in USA for farming, but not in India.
IV) Per capita production:
Per capita production is more in USA than India.
V) Per hectare production:
Per hectare production is more in India than USA.
VI) Pressure on land:
Population pressure on agricultural land is much more in India than USA.
VII) Use of fertilizer:
Comparatively use of fertilizer on farm is more in USA than India etc. Read more….
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