1. What are the cropping seasons of India? Explain any two in brief? ** (Agriculture)
Answer: India has three cropping seasons:
Rabi crops :
- Sown in Winter from October to December
- Harvested in summer from April to June.
- Main crops : Wheat , Barley, Peas, gram ,mustard .
- Sown with the onset of monsoon.
- Harvested in September October.
- Main crops: Rice, Maize, jowar, bajra.
2. State any three characteristics of Intensive Subsistence Farming ?**
- It is a labour – intensive farming.
- High doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.
- Farm size is small due to division of land.
- The farmers take maximum output from the limited land.
- It is practiced in areas of high density of population.
3. What are coarse grains? Describe their characteristics?**
Jowar ,Bajra and ragi are the important millets grown in India. These are known as coarse grains.
- They have very high nutritional value.
- Ragi is rich in iron and calcium.
- Jowar is the third most important food crop with respect to area and production.
- Bajra grows well in Sandy soil and shallow black soil.
- Major ragi producing states are Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
- Major Jowar producing states are Maharashtra and Karnataka.
4. Mention the geographical conditions required for cultivation of rice in India? ***
- It is staple food crop of a majority of the people in India .
- This is a Kharif crop.
- It requires high temperature ( above 25 degree C ) and high rainfall above 100 cm.
- Rice is grown mainly in the plains of north and north – eastern states ,coastal areas and the deltaic regions.
- Due to development of canal irrigation and tube wells it is possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall like Punjab and Haryana.
5. Mention the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of wheat in India? ***
- It is the second most important cereal crop.
- This is a Rabi crop.
- It requires a cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening.
- It requires 50 to 75 cm of rainfall.
- The major wheat growing states are Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
6. Mention important technological and institutional reforms introduced for agricultural development in India after Independence in 1960s and 1970? ***
- Collective farming was introduced.
- Land holdings were consolidated.
- Co – Operative Movement was started in Indian agriculture.
- Zamindari system was abolished.
- Land Reform was introduced in First Five Year Plan.
- The Green Revolution was introduced.
7. What are the four important fibre crops of India? Describe any one of them? **
Four important fibre crops of India are : Cotton, Jute, Hemp and Silk.
- India was the second largest producer of cotton after China in 2008.
- Cotton grows well in the black soil of the Deccan Plateau.
- It requires high temperature, light rainfall and 210 frost – free days.
- It is a Kharif crop.
- Major cotton producing states are Maharashtra ,Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh.
8. Write any five features of Comprehensive land development programme initiated during 1980s and 1990s? ***
- Provision for crop insurance against drought and flood.
- Establishment of Grameen Banks.
- KCC was introduced.
- PAIS was introduced by the Government Of India.
- Special weather bulletins were introduced on radio and television.
9. What is the difference between commercial and Primitive subsistence agriculture? **
Primitive Subsistence agriculture:
- It is practiced on the small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe and dao.
- This is a type of slash and burn farming.
- It is mainly practiced in North Eastern part of India.
- Farmers uses high doses of modern inputs like HYV seeds and chemical fertilizers.
- Crops are grown on a large scale to export them.
- Plantation is a type of commercial farming in which a single crop is grown.
10. Name two beverage crops of India and describe any one of them ?
The two beverage crops are tea and coffee.
- Tea cultivation is an example of plantation agriculture.
- The tea plants grow well in tropical and sub – tropical climate.
- Tea bushes requires frost – free climate.
- It is a labour intensive industry.
- Major states are Assam and hills of Darjeeling.