- Define the term ‘challenge’?
Ans:-A challenge is a difficulty which carries within it an opportunity for progress.
2. What type of challenge is faced by a non-democratic country setting up democracy?
Ans:-Foundational Challenge is faced by a non-democratic country setting up democracy.
3. Which challenge to established democracies ensures more participation of women and minority groups in a democratic country?
Ans:-The challenge of expansion to established democracies ensures more participation of women and minority groups in a democratic country.
4. What does the challenge of expansion faced by established democracies involve?
Ans:-It involves applying basic principles of democratic governments across all regions, different social groups and various institutions.
5.What type of challenge is being faced by every democracy in one form or the other?
Ans:-The challenge of deepening of democracy is being faced by every democracy in one form or the other.
6. What are democratic reforms?
Ans:-Any suggestions or proposals about overcoming various challenges of democracy are called democratic reforms.
7.What should be the main focus of political reforms?
Ans:-The main focus of political reforms should be always to strengthen democratic practice.
B.3 MARKS QUESTIONS:-(3X7=21MARKS)
- Explain three foundational challenges faced by democracies? ***
Ans:-The foundational challenges faced by democracies include:-
(i) Establishing a sovereign and functional state.
(ii) Keeping military away from controlling government.
(iii) Bringing down the existing non-democratic regimes.
2. What are the features of a good democracy? ***
Ans:-Features of a good democracy are:
(i)Rulers are elected by the people to take all decisions.
(ii)Democracy ensures that rights are given to the citizens.
(iii)Elections give an opportunity and choice to the people.
3. Mention a few broad guidelines for devising political reforms in India. ***
Ans:-A few broad guidelines for devising political reforms in India are:-
(i)Reforms through political reforms.
(ii)Implementation of reforms.
(iii)Legal ways of reforming politics.
(iv)The Right To Information Act.
4. Write about the challenge of deepening of democracy? ***
Ans:-The challenge of deepening of democracy is faced by every democracy in one way or the other.This challenge ensures:-
(i)Strengthening of democratic institutions and principles.
(ii)To check the influence of the wealthy and powerful people in the democratic decisions.
(iii)Empowering the general section of people through democratic institutions.
C.5 MARKS QUESTIONS:-(5X5=25MARKS)
1. “Different countries face different kinds of challenges.”Support the statement with suitable examples. **
Ans:-This statement is very true.
(i)Non-democratic countries face foundational challenges. This involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling government and establishing a sovereign and functional state. Example:-Myanmar, Pakistan, Oman etc.
(ii)Every democratic country face the challenge of deepening of democracy. This involves applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the region, different social groups and various institutions. Example:-Saudi Arab.
(iii)Every democracy faces the challenge of expansion. This involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy. It requires an attempt to bring down that control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decisions. Example:-India, USA.
2. Explain the challenges before the countries of the world regarding democracy. ***
Ans:-The challenges before the countries of the world regarding democracy are following:-
(i)Foundational challenge is about making the transition to democracy and then instituting a democratic government.
(ii)Challenge of Expansion is faced by most of the established democracies. This involves applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions.
(iii)Challenges of Deepening democracy involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy ,specially those that people’s participation and control.
3. ‘Legal reforms may sometimes be counterproductive. ‘Support the statement with suitable arguments. **
Ans:-(i)Any legal change must carefully look at the results it will have on politics. Sometimes, the results can be counter-productive. For, example, many states have banned people who have more than two children from contesting panchayat elections.
(ii)The best laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reforms.
(iii)This has resulted in the denial of democratic opportunity to many poor men and women which was not intended. Generally, laws that seek to ban something are not very successful in politics.
4. What must not take place in a democracy if it is a good democracy? **
Ans:-The following factors must not take place in a democracy, if it is a good democracy:-
(i)Corruption in any form.
(ii)Rigging election results.
(iii)Concentration of power in few hands.
(iv)Election candidates with corrupt and criminal backgrounds.
(v)Decision-making based only on the interests of the majority group.
5. ‘A challenge is an opportunity for progress. ‘Support the statement with your arguments. ***
Ans:-(i)A challenge is not just any problem. We usually call only those difficulties a challenge which are significant and can be overcome. For example, established democracies face the challenge of expansion of democratic principle across the regions which can be overcome by empowering different social groups and local governments.
(ii)A challenge is a difficulty that carries an opportunity for progress like the foundational challenge faced by evolving democracies. Once the transition is made to democracy, it opens the opportunity for further progress in democracy.
(iii)Thus once we overcome a challenge, we go up to a higher level than before. For instance, democracy oater facing the foundational challenge and the challenge of expansion leads to the challenge of deepening .This challenge involves empowering the political institutions like political parties, pressure groups and movement groups. Read more…