Question. What does national development refers to? (Development x)
It refers to the ability of a country to improve the social welfare of the people. For example, by providing social amenities such as quality education, potable water, transportation, infrastructure and medical care.
Question. Mention any three limitations of per capita income as an indicator of development.
- It does not tell us anything about the distribution of income.
- It hide disparities.
- Health and Education has to be considered along with per capita income to understand development of the country.
Question. Distinguish between a developing country and a developed country.
- The standard of living is low.
- Per capita income is low.
- The rate of capital formation is low.
- The standard of living is high.
- Per capita income is high.
- The rate of capital formation is high.
Question. Mention any three characteristics of development.
- Different people can have different development goals.
- A mix of goals for development.
- Development for one may not be development for others.
Question. Besides income, what are other six things people may look for growth and development?
- Regular income
- Good health
- Desirable living standard
- Good working conditions
- Equal treatment
Question. Distinguish between human development and economic development. (Development x)
- a. human centered approach
- b. indicated by HDI
- c. wider term
- a. it is continuous and sustained growth in an economy along with a general improvement
- b. indicated by PCI
- c. narrow term
Question. Distinguish between Human Development Index and World Development Report.
Human development index:-
- a. Stresses on good and quality life
- b. Parameters are good education, health facilities etc.
- c. It includes literacy rate, life expectancy, infant mortality etc.
World development report:-
- a. Stresses on rise in PCI
- b. Parameters are quantities aspect of development.
- c. It includes GDP, national income and PCI.
B. 5 MARKS QUESTIONS :- (Development x)
Question. What is sustainable development? Suggest ways in which resources can be used judiciously.
Sustainable development refers to the development without hampering the needs of the future generations so that the future generations may enjoy the benefits of nature to the fullest some ways in which the resources can be used judiciously are as follows:-
- a. Economic extraction of resources.
- b. Use of alternative resources.
- c. Less use of non-renewable resources.
- d. Limiting waste material at production level.
Question. List a few example of environment degradation that you may have observed around you.
- a. Deforestation
- b. Soil erosion
- c. Ozone depletion
- d. Air and water pollution
- e. Wasting of fossil fuel
- f. Lowering of water level.
Question. In what respect is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
- UNDP compares the development of the countries on the basis of literacy rate, gross enrollment ratio and health status of their people. World bank compares on the basis of PCI.
- UNDP rank countries as first, second and so on. Whereas World bank divides countries into three categories.
- a. Developed
- b. Developing and under developed.
- UNDP has broadconcept of development and the World bank has a narrow concept of development.
- Income- income of all the people of a country. Average income of the people/ per-capita income
- respect for others,
- equal treatment,
- freedom etc. in mind.