Devotional Path to the Divine
Q. What is hagiography?
Ans: Between the tenth and twelfth centuries when their poems were compiled for spreading bhakti hagiographies or religious biographies of the Alvars and Nayanars were also composed. Today we use these texts as sources for writing histories of the bhakti tradition.
Q. Explain about the Virashaiva movement.
Ans: Virashaiva movement was initiated by Basavanna and his companions like Allama Prabhu and Akkamahadevi. This movement began in Karnataka in the mid-twelfth century. The Virashaivas argued strongly for the equality of all human beings and they were also against all forms of ritual and idol worship.
Q. How did the saints of Maharashtra spread their ideas of bhakti?
Ans: The most important saints of Maharashtra were Janeshwar, Namdev, Eknath and Tukaram as well as women like Sakkubai and the family of Chokhamela etc. They rejected all forms of ritualism, the idea of renunciation and preferred to live with their families, earning their livelihood like any other person. A new humanist idea emerged as they insisted that bhakti lay in sharing others’ pain.
Q. What do you mean by Nathpanthis, Siddhas and Yogis? (Devotional Path to the Divine)
Ans: A number of religious groups that emerged during the thirteenth to seventeenth century who criticised the ritual and other aspects of conventional religion and the social order, using simple, logical arguments. Among them were the Nathpanthis, Siddhacharas and
Yogis. They beleived in training and practices of mind like yogasanas for salvation.
Q. Discuss about the contribution of Kabir in bhakti movement.
Ans: Kabir rejected all Orthodox religion and he believed in formless supreme god and preached that the only path to salvation was through bhakti or devotion. His teachings openly ridiculed all forms of external worship of both Brahmanical Hinduism and Islam.