The Crisis of the Empire and the Later Mughals:
- Emperor Aurangzeb had depleted the military and financial resources of his empire by fighting a long war in the Deccan.
- Powerful mansabdars/zaminders/officers tried to independent.
- Peasant and zamindari rebellions in many parts of northern and western India added to these problems.
- Foreign rulers attack (page 141,142).
Emergence of New States:
- Powerful subadars/zaminders/army officers established their power on their particular area to build new states.
Formation of Hyderabad:
- Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah, the founder of Hyderabad state,
- Asaf Jah brought skilled soldiers and administrators from northern India to become powerful.
Formation of Awadh:
- Burhan-ul-Mulk tried to decrease Mughal influence in the Awadh region by reducing the number of office holders (jagirdars) appointed by the Mughals.
- He also reduced the size of jagirs,
- He seized a number of Rajput zamindaris and the agriculturally fertile lands of the Afghans of Rohilkhand.
Formation of Bengal: