1. How has human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna ? – Explain.
Human activities have affected the depletion of flora and fauna in the following ways :-
- Rapid urbanization & industrialization have led to clearing of forests & depletion of flora & fauna.
- A large population means more food production. Agriculture is also responsible for the depletion of forests.
- Mining & multipurpose projects is another reason for depletion of flora & fauna.
2. Discuss about any three effective practices to preserve forest & wildlife. ***
The following can be the three effective practices towards conserving forest & wildlife:
- Setting up of national parks & wildlife sanctuaries by the Central & State Governments.
- By launching targeted projects like Project Tiger, important species whose life is in danger.
- Bringing together communities with government projects is the most effective way to conserve forest & wildlife resources.
3. What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human life?***
- Biodiversity is the existence of rich and varied plants & animal species that exist in a particular area &make a balanced environment.
- It is important for human life as the plants, animals & micro organisms are responsible for the water we drink, the air we breathe & the soil on which we grow food.
- We depend on biodiversity for our existence.
4. Write any three measures to conserve ecosystem. ***
- Forests should be reserved & more trees should be planted.
- Wildlife must be protected by enacting laws & creating awareness among people.
- Starting various projects or policy to protect endangered species of plants and wildlife.
5. Distinguish between reserved & protected forests.***
|S.NO.||RESERVED FORESTS||PROTECTED FORESTS|
|1||These are most valuable.||Mainly try to protect from any further depletion.|
|2||More than half of the forests are reserve forest||Almost 1/3 rd of the total forest has been declared as protected forest.|
|3||These are found in Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu etc.||In Bihar, Haryana, Punjab these types of forest are available etc.|
6. Write about any three adverse effects of the destruction of the forest and wildlife.**
- Destruction of forest & wildlife leads to disturbances in ecological balance of the environment.
- It also affects the cultural loss of communities & their displacement.
- It also disturbs the food chain, ecosystem & development of the society.
7. When was the Indian Wildlife Protection Act implemented? Describe its main objectives. ***
The Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972 for protecting habitats of wildlife.
- To protect this types of endangered species we have to banned hunting, providing legal protection to their habitats & stopping trade and wildlife.
- The Central & State Government established National Parks & wildlife sanctuaries to conserve & protect flora & fauna.
- The Central Government also announced various projects for protecting specific animals, which were threatened, like Project Tiger & Project Rhino.
8. Discuss the salient features of Joint Forest Management programme.(JFM)***
- In India, JFM programme is a good example of how local communities were involved in the management & restoration of degraded forest.
- It has been in existence since 1988.
- The state of Odisha first passed the resolution for JFM.
- It depends on the formation of local institutions that undertake protection activities mostly on degraded forest land managed by the forest department.