**Q.1. Write about the subsistence crisis? During the Old regime why did it occur?
Ans. Subsistence crisis may be defined as extreme situation in which the basic means of livelihood were endangered.
It occurred in France due to the following:
- The population of the France was on the rise. It rose from 23 million to 28 million in 1715 to 1789 respectively. These are the causes to increase in the demand for food grains.
- With the demand the production of food grains could not keep pace and the price of bread which was the staple diet of the majority rose rapidly.
- The wages did not keep pace with the price rise. The gap between the rich and the poor widened .This led to the subsistence crisis.
**Q.2. Explain about the system of voting in the Estates General? Which changes wanted by the third state in this system?
- Balloting in the Estates widespread was conducted from the beginning.
- In step with the principle, every citizen had the right of one vote.
- Members of the third states had been demeans.
- Individuals of third estate demanded that balloting need to be carried out by way of the assembly as a whole, where every member would have the right of one vote.
- This became in line with the democratic ideas recommend by means of philosophers like Rousseau in his book, ‘The Social agreement’.
***Q.3. Describe the incidents that brought about the storming of the Bastille.
Ans. i. countrywide meeting changed into busy at Versailles drafting a charter; the rest of France was seething with turmoil.
ii. A extreme iciness had meant a bad harvest, the fee of bread rose. regularly bakers exploited the state of affairs and hoarded resources.
iii. After spending hours in lengthy queues at the bakery, crowds of irritated ladies stormed into the shops.
iv. at the identical time, the king ordered troops to move into Paris. On 14 July the agitated crowd destroyed Bastille.
***Q.4. Who were the people comprising the third estate? Who paid the taxes and to whom?
Ans:-The folks that comprised the 0.33 estate were massive businessmen, traders, attorneys, peasants, artisans, small peasants, landless labour and servants. 2- these have been 95 percentage of the populace. They needed to pay taxes to the country. Taxes covered taille, tithes and a number of indirect taxes.
**Q.5. Write 3 well-known writers and philosophers who prompted the French- Revolution. What had been their ideas?
Ans.1. Jean Jacques Rousseau – a French Swiss philosopher. His main idea become – guy is obviously accurate and that society of civilization makes man tense and sad.
2. Mirabeau – he introduced about a magazine and added powerful speeches to the crowds at Versailles.
3. Voltaire – A well-known French author. He uncovered the evils triumphing in the Church and management.
**Q.6. Describe the significance of announcement of the proper of man in France.
Ans 1-The assertion of the proper of man in France became a landmark choice inside the records of France. 2- The constitution started with a statement of the Rights of man and Citizen. Rights inclusive of the proper to lifestyles, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before regulation, had been hooked up as ‘herbal and inalienable’ rights. that is, they belonged to every person by beginning and could not be taken away . 3- It turned into the responsibility of the country to guard each citizen’s natural rights. The announcement of the right of man and residents influenced modern actions some place else too.
**Q.7. Describe the ‘Reign of Terror’ and role played through Robespierre in it.
Ans. The length from 1793 to 1794 A.D is called the ‘Reign of Terror’.
1. Maximilian Robespierre, leader of the Jacobin, observed the policy of excessive control and punishment.
2. All those who saw as enemies of the Republic — ex-nobles, clergy, political warring parties — were arrested, attempted and guillotined if discovered responsible.
3. He issued legal guidelines putting a most ceiling on wages and fees.
4. Meat and bread have been rationed.
5. Use of high-priced white flour changed into forbidden.
***Q.8: Describe the situations main to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.
Ans : The circumstances main to the outbreak of modern protest in France have been:
French society in the eighteenth century turned into divided into three estates particularly The Clergy, The the Aristocracy and 0.33 estates. First estates, that is, the clergy and the the Aristocracy loved positive privileges through start. They have been exempt from paying taxes. The 0.33 estate accommodates of businessmen, merchants, Peasants and artisans, labors needed to pay taxes to the country.
lengthy years of war had drained the monetary resources of France. France had a debt of extra than 2 billion livres. to fulfill its normal prices, which include the cost of retaining an navy, the courtroom, jogging authorities places of work or universities, the country become forced to boom taxes which angered the human beings.
The population of France additionally improved from 23 million in 1715 to twenty-eight million in 1789. food grains were now in exquisite call for. The rate of bread shot up. Wages did now not preserve tempo with growing charges. This brought about subsistence crisis. strong middle magnificence: a new middle class emerged knowledgeable and wealthy in the course of the eighteenth century.
They believed that no institution in society should accept privileges via beginning. thoughts of equality and freedom had been put forward by way of philosophers. The thoughts of these philosophers had been discussed intensively in salons and coffeehouses and spread among humans.
On 5 can also, 1789, Louis XVI known as together an assembly of Estates popular to bypass proposals for new taxes. third estates protested towards this inspiration but as each property have one vote, the king rejected this enchantment. They walked out of the assembly.
*** 9. explain about the achievements and results of French Revolution.
Ans : The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the maximum essential legacy of the French Revolution. these spread from France to the relaxation of Europe during the nineteenth century, wherein feudal structures had been abolished. It stimulated the Germans, Italians, and Austrians to overthrow their oppressive regimes.
The French Revolution inspired the suffering countries of Asia and Africa who have been groaning underneath the oppression of ecu colonialism. Tipu Sultan and Rajaram Mohan Roy are examples of folks that responded to thoughts coming from French revolution.
*** 10. provide an explanation for approximately the causes of the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Ans : After Robespierre’s rule came to an stop a listing was fashioned to avoid concentration of electricity in one individual. members of the directory often fought amongst themselves leading to general chaos and political instability. This created a political vacuum in France.
This was a conducive situation and Napoleon Bonaparte took the reign of strength as a army dictator. Napoleon noticed his role as a modernizer of Europe. He brought many legal guidelines which include the safety of personal belongings and a uniform device of weights and measures supplied via the decimal system.
***Q.11. provide an explanation for the exceptional estates of French Society.
How became the society of property prepared in France?
Ans. In France of the old Regime, there has been three department of society.
(I) 1st property -Clergy
(II) 2nd property -the Aristocracy
(III) third property- legal professionals, massive businessmen, peasants, landless labors, and so on
Clergy have been the human beings associated with Church sports and covered monks. the Aristocracy have been the pals and loved ones of the King of France. The Clergy and the nobility loved feudal privileges, that they had the right to accumulate sales or even impose their own taxes. They themselves had exemption from paying taxes.
The weight of paying taxes was taken through the third estate by myself, which consisted of regular human beings comprising of approximately 90% of the populace. They included specialists like lawyers, massive businessmen and additionally small businessmen and peasants.