- There are two types of forces creating or shaping the earth surface. Like ‘endogenic’ and exogenic’ forces.
- Endogenic forces means that kinds of forces which are shaping the earth surface internally.
- Volcanism and earthquake are the example of endogenic forces.
- Exogenic forces means which forces are acting externally or outside the earth surface for shaping the land.
- Running water, wind action, glacier, etc. are the examples of exogenic forces shaping the earth surface.
- Degradation and aggradation process is contradictory. Wearing down or decreasing the height of the landforms are known as degradation. On the other hand the process of filling up is aggradation.
- Endogenic and exogenic processes are shaping or changing the land surface – geomorphic process.
- Diastrophism: the process to build up or elevate and move of the earth surface.
- Orogenic, Epeirogenic, earthquake and plate tectonic is the process of diastrophism.
Orogenic: the process related to the formation of the mountain.
- Epeirogenic: the process of the formation of the continent or big landmasses.
- Earthquake: the shaking of the earth surface.
- Plate tectonic: this is the process of the movement of the crystal plates of the earth.
- Volcanism: this is the process of magma eruption from the interior part of the earth.
- Denudation: this is the process of strip off or uncover the surface. Here running water, glacier, weathering, mass wasting etc. is under this process of denudation.
- Weathering: is the process of disintegration or decomposition of earth particles or rocks with the help weather elements.
- In-situ or on-site process: weathering includes in this process, where disintegrated materials stay on the place of occurrence.
- Weathering: generally three types – Chemical, Physical and Biological.
- Chemical process: like oxidation, carbonation, hydration and reduction.
- Chemical processes changes the particles chemically and form new types of substances.
- Physical weathering includes the process of changing substances physically. Here only structural changes occurred.
- Biological weathering: this process mainly done by living organism, like human beings, or other living things. 49.
Class 12 Geography