Q1. Where and why did people develop their settlements?
Ans: Settlements are places where people build their homes. Early human beings lived on trees and in caves. But, when they started to grow crops the settlements grew near the river valleys as water was available and land was fertile.
Ans: Settlements can be permanent or temporary.
● Temporary Settlements:
1. Which are occupied for a short time are called temporary settlements. The people living in deep forests, hot and cold deserts and mountains often dwell in such temporary settlements. They practice hunting, gathering, shifting cultivation and transhumance.
● Permanent Settlement:
More and more settlements today are permanent settlements. In these settlements, people build homes to live in.
Ans: Rural settlement: (write any 5 points)1. The villages are rural settlement where people are engaged in activities like agriculture, fishing, forestry, crafts work and trading etc.2. Rural settlements can be compact or scattered.3. In rural areas, people build houses to suit their environment.4. In regions of heavy rainfall, they have slanting roofs.5. Places where water accumulates in the rainy season the houses are constructed on a raised platform or stilts.6. Thick mud walled houses with thatched roofs are very common in areas of hot climate.7. Local materials like stones, mud, clay, straw etc are used to construct houses.
Ans: In a scattered settlement dwellings are spaced over an extensive area. This type of settlement is mostly found in hilly tracts, thick forests, and regions of extreme climate.
Ans: The towns are small and the cities are larger urban settlements. A city is a large settlement. Cities generally have extensive system for housing, transportation, sanitation, utilities, land use etc. In urban areas the people are engaged in manufacturing, trading, and services.
Ans: There are several National and State highways in India. The latest development in India is the construction of Express Ways. The Golden Quadrilateral connects Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.
Ans: Transportation plays a major role in the economy. It increases the production efficiency and it links to the logistics system. Vehicle should have some characteristics which are used for easy transport of goods and services.
Transportation is generally of two types. They are public transport and transport for non generic-use. Public transport is nothing but which is used for meeting the needs of all sectors of the people for transportation of goods and services. Transport non-generic will be for the plant operations here the transportation means may be by the non-transport enterprises.
Coming to the different types of transport which are usage generally are:
- Ability of loading and unloading goods and services is more.
- Frequency of delivering the goods over long distances is more.
- Climatic conditions have no effect
- No traffic or congestion easy movement of the vehicle.
- Capital and initial investments are more.
- High material usage for the construction and even the fuel consumption
- The above are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using the rail.
- High flexibity and ability to move the vehicles fastly.
- Uses different routes to reach the destination quickly.
- Does door to door service
- High safety for the cargo.
- Chance to select the carrier which is suitable for carrying the goods.
- It mostly depends on climatic conditions.
- High cost for long distances.
- Productivity is low.
- Some of the advantages and disadvantages are discussed above.
- Highest speed
- Even delivers goods to remote places.
- High reliability
- Highest cost of transportation.
- Even adverse weather conditions effect the transportation.
- Material and fuel consumption is costly.
- It is economical mode for transporting heavy loads and even cargo.
- It is the safest mode which provides convenience to the people without accidents.
- Cost of construction and maintenance is very low.
- It even provides international transport
- It is highly affected by the weather conditions.
- It requires large initial investment
- It is a slow process.
So, these are some means of transport.