Industries – Class VIII

Q1. Classify industries on several basis.
Ans: CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES:
 Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership.
Classification on the basis of Raw  Materials:
Industries may be agro based, mineral based, marine based and forest based depending on the type of raw materials they use.
I) Agro based industries use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries.
II) Mineral based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral based industry. This is used as raw material for the manufacture of a number of other products, such as heavy machinery, building materials and railway coaches.
III) Marine based industries use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials. Industries processing sea food or manufacturing fish oil are some examples.
IV) Forest based industries utilise forest produce as raw materials. The industries associated with forests are pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture and buildings.
● Classification on the basis of Size: 
It refers to the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production. Based on size, industries can be classified into small scale and large scale industries.
I) Cottage or household industries are a type of small scale industry where the products are manufactured by hand, by the artisans. Basket weaving, pottery and other handicrafts are examples of cottage industry. Small scale industries use lesser amount of capital and technology as compared to large scale industries that produce large volumes of products. Investment of capital is higher and the technology used is superior in large scale industries. Silk weaving and food processing industries are small scale industries.
II) Production of automobiles and heavy machinery are large scale industries.
● Classification on the basis of Ownership:
Industries can be classified into private sector, state owned or public sector, joint sector and cooperative sector.
I) Private sector industriesare owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. The public sector industries are owned and operated by the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited.
II) Joint sector industries  are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti Udyog Limited is an example of joint sector industry.
III) Co-operative sector  industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy are a success stories of a co-operative venture.
Q. Why Industries are included as secondary activities?
Ans: Industries change raw materials into products of more value to people. Each and every Industries use raw materials, which are already produced in the primary sectors- directly from the natural environment. That is to say, Industries are using primary products and became secondary sector activities.
 
Q1. What do you mean by industry?
Ans:
Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services. Thus we have iron and steel industry (production of goods), coal mining industry (extraction of coal) and tourism industry (service provider).
Q2. Why manufacturing activities are considered as the secondary activities?
Ans:
Manufacturing change raw materials into products of more value to people. Like pulp was changed into paper and paper into a note book. Manufacturing industries are using primary products for making new materials. This is why, manufacturing activities are considered as secondary activities.
Q3. Classify industries on the basis of ….. Raw materials/ ownership / size. 
 Ans: CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES:
Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership.
● Classification on the basis of Raw Materials:
  1. Agro based industries: Use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries.
  2. Mineral based: Industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral based industry.
  3. Marine based: Industries use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials. Industries processing sea food or manufacturing fish oil are some examples.
  4. Forest based: Industries utilise forest produce as raw materials. The industries associated with forests are pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture and buildings.
● Classification on the basis of Size:
It refers to the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production. Based on size, industries can be classified into small scale and large scale industries.
    1. Small size industries: Cottage or household industries are a type of small scale industry where the products are manufactured by hand, by the artisans. Basket weaving, pottery and other handicrafts are examples of cottage industry. Small scale industries use lesser amount of capital and technology as compared to large scale industries that produce large volumes of products.
    2. Large size industries: Investment of capital is higher and the technology used is superior in large scale industries. Silk weaving and food processing industries are small scale industries. Production of automobiles and heavy machinery are large scale industries.
● Classification on the basis of Ownership:
    1. Private sector industries: Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.
    2. Public sector industries: The public sector industries are owned and operated by the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited.
    3. Joint sector industries: Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti Udyog Limited is an example of joint sector industry.
    4. Co-operative sector industries: Co-operative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy are a success stories of a co-operative venture.
Q. What are the factors of the location of industries?
Ans: 
The factors affecting the location of industries are
  1. the availability of raw material,
  2. land,
  3. water,
  4. labour,
  5. power,
  6. capital,
  7. transport and
  8. market.
Industries are situate d where some or all of these factors are easily available. Sometimes, the government provides incentives like subsidised power, lower transport cost and other infrastructure so that industries may be located in backward areas. Industrialisation often leads to development and growth of towns and cities.
Q. Discuss about the major industrial belt of our country.
Ans: India has several industrial regions like Mumbai- Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chottanagpur industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region and the Kollam-Thiruvanathapuram industrial cluster.
In India, iron and steel industry has developed taking advantage of raw materials, cheap labour, transport and market mainly in Chhotanagpur plateau region. In Pune cluster, Delhi-Gurugaon-Meerut region, Bangalore-Tamilnadu region – mainly IT sector developed, and in Ahmedabad-Baroda region mainly cotton textile industries developed because of some favorable conditions.
For example, availability of coal and iron ore helps to develop iron and steel industry in Chhotanagpur plateau region.
Q. What are the factors affecting the distribution of industries in India – explain with examples?
Q. What do you mean by industrial system?
Ans: An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and  outputs.
  • The inputs are the raw materials, labour and costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure.
  • The processes include a wide range of activities that convert the raw material into finished products.
  • The outputs are the end product and the income earned  from it.
  • For example, In case of the textile industry the inputs may be cotton, human labour, factory and transport cost. The  processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing  and printing. The output is the shirt you wear.
Q. Discuss about the distribution of major industries in the world.
Ans: The world’s major industries are the iron and steel  industry, the textile industry and the information technology industry. The iron and steel and textile industry are the older industries while information technology is an emerging industry.
  • The countries in which iron and steel industry is located are Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia.
  • Textile industry is concentrated in India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan.
  • The major hubs of Information technology industry are the Silicon valley of Central California and the Bangalore region of India.
Q. Write a short note on cilicon valley of India.
Ans: Silicon Valley, is a part of Santa Clara Valley, located next to the Rocky Mountains of North America. In this area information technology (IT) developed to deals in the storage, processing and distribution of information.
In India Bangalore is located on the Deccan Plateau, where the climatic condition and the development of information technology are almost same as like as in Silicon Valley in California. Hence, taking this facts into consideration, Bangalore is known as the silicon valley of India.
Q. What are the factors responsible for the development of TISCO?

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