Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic
Question: How did some men become ruler in about 3000 years ago? (Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic)
Answer: Around 3000 years ago some men became rajas or rulers by performing big sacrifices. One of such ritual is Ashvaamedha.
Question: Write a short note on ‘Ashvamedha’. (Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic)
Answer: Ashvamedha was a ritual for sacrificing horses. In this ritual a horses was let loose to move or wander freely. This horse is mainly guarded by rajas men. If this horse enters into other’s kingdom they will stop it and they kingdom had to fight. If the other kingdom allows this horse to pass, it means that kingdom will come under rajas that performed the ritual ‘Ashvamedha’. This ritual was mainly performed by Brahmans.
Question: Explain about the Varna system in the Rigvedas period.
Answer: The Priests or Brahmans divided the whole society into four groups. These are as follows –
- Brahmins: These were the people who performed several types of rituals. After completion of rituals they got several types of gifts.
- Kshatriyas: These were the people who fought battles and they protect people.
- Vaishyas: They were the people who were traders, farmers, herders etc.
- Shudras: These were the people who served other three groups. Shudras were not allowed to perform any kind of rituals or functions.
Question: Explain about ‘janapadas’ or ‘Mahajanapadas’.
Answer: By performing big sacrifices some men became rajas of janapadas. Janapadas means a land where people set or put their foot. There were so many janapadas. Among all 16 janapadas became more powerful than others. These powerful janapadas were known as ‘Mahajanapadas’.
Question: Which types of taxes were collected in Mahajanapadas?
Answer: There were several types of taxes collected from the people.
- Bhaga or share: 1/6 of the production as taxes.
- Taxes from craft person.
- Taxes from the herders.
- Tax from traders.
- Taxes from hunters etc.
Question: How did some janapadas become more powerful?