Land, soil, water, natural vegetation and wildlife resources – Class VIII

Land, soil, water, natural vegetation and wildlife resources

Question 1. “Mamba and Peter stay in two different parts of the world and lead very different lives” – Why?
This difference is because of the differences in the quality of land, soil, water, natural vegetation, animals and the usage of technology. The availability of such resources is the main reason places differ from each other.

Question 2. What are the main reasons of uneven distribution of population?
Answer: The uneven distribution of population in different parts of the world is mainly due to varied characteristics of land and climate.
The rugged topography, steep slopes of the mountains, low-lying areas susceptible to water logging, desert areas, thick forested areas are normally sparsely populated or uninhabited.
Plains and river valleys offer suitable land for agriculture. Therefore there are so many people are living in the plain or river valley area.
Question 3. How do you want to define land use?
Answer: Land is used for different purposes such as agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses, roads and setting up of  industries. This is commonly termed as  Land use.
Question 4. What are the controlling factors of land use pattern?
Answer: The use of land is determined by –
Physical factors – such as topography, soil, climate, minerals and availability of water.
Human factors – such as population and technology are also important determinants of land use pattern.
Question 5. What are common property resources?            (Land, soil, water, natural vegetation and wildlife resources)
Answer: Community land is owned by the community for common uses like collection of fodder, fruits, nuts or medicinal herbs. These community lands are common property resources.
Question 6. Why land resources conservation is essential?
Answer: We need to conserve land resources, because –
I) People and their demands are ever growing.
II) The quality of land also differs from place to place.
III) People started encroaching the common lands to build up commercial areas, housing complexes in the urban areas and to expand the agricultural land in the rural areas.
IV) Today the vast changes in the land use pattern also reflect the cultural changes in our society.
V) Land degradation, landslides, soil erosion, desertification are the major threats to the environment because of the expansion of agriculture and constructional activities.
Question 7: What is land soil? What are the main factors affecting the formation of soil?
Answer: Soil: Soil is the thin layer of grainy substances lies on top most part of the earth surface.
Factors affecting the formation of soil: 
  • Climate: Components of climate like temperature or rainfall are the factors controlling the soil formation. For example due to very less rainfall in the desert soil formation is not possible on that particular area.
  • Parent rock: Parent rocks mean the original rock from which the soil is formed. This parent rocks control the colour texture chemical properties of the soil.
  • Relief or Topography: Due to this relief factor the soil formation is not suitable in the mountainous area.
  • Flora and Fauna: The flora and fauna also affects the rate of humus formation on the soil.
  • Time: Finally it takes more than millions of year for the formation of soil. Therefore time is another important factor for the formation of soil.


  1. Nowadays degradation of soil is very common and therefore we have to preserve these soil resources. There are so many methods of soil conservation like Terrace farming, inter cropping, contour plugging, shelter belt, Rock dams and mulching etc.
  2. The maximum part of the Earth’s surface is covered with this water resource. But this huge amount of water is not usable for the human beings. Therefore we have to conserve this water resource.
  3. We have to do judicial use of this natural resource.
  4. We have to minimize the source of water pollution as much as possible.
  5. Like we have to minimize the use of chemical fertilizers on agricultural land so that the surface runoff cannot pollute this water.
  6. We can stop over irrigation process.
Question: What do you mean by biosphere?

Answer:  Natural vegetation and wildlife exist only in the narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, Hydrosphere and atmosphere which is known as the biosphere. This biosphere is gradually facing several kinds of problems human made and some natural causes.


  • Natural vegetation and wildlife are valuable resources like plants provide us timber, give shelter to animals, provide oxygen etc.
  • Natural vegetation protect soil erosion for growing crops.

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