Q. Write about the salient features of the Sahara desert.
Ans: The Sahara desert covering a large part of North
Africa. It is the world’s largest desert. It has an area of around 8.54 million sq. km.
The Sahara desert touches eleven countries. These are Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Sudan, Tunisia and Western Sahara.
Q. Discuss about the salient features of climate in the Sahara desert area.
- The climate of the Sahara desert is scorching hot and parch dry.
- It has a short rainy season and the sky is cloudless and clear.
- Here, the moisture evaporates faster than it accumulates.
- Days are unbelievably hot. The temperatures during the day may soar as high as 50°C, heating up the sand and the bare rocks, which in turn radiates heat making everything around hot.
- The nights may be freezing cold with temperatures nearing zero degrees.
Q. Write a short note on flora and fauna in the Sahara desert area.
- Flora: Vegetation in the Sahara desert includes cactus, date palms and acacia. In some places there are oasis – green islands with date palms surrounding them.
- Fauna: Camels, hyenas, jackals, foxes, scorpions, many varieties of snakes and lizards are the prominent animal species living there.
Q. Discuss about the life style of the people in the Sahara desert.
Ans: The Bedouins and Tuaregs are the main tribes living in this Sahara desert area. These groups are nomadic tribes rearing livestock such as goats, sheep, camels and horses. They wear heavy robes as protection against dust storms and hot winds.
The oasis in the Sahara and the Nile Valley in Egypt supports settled population. The development of several industries like petroleum, cotton etc. are the base of economy of the people in this area.
Q. What are the main reasons of industrial development in Sahara desert?
Ans: The discovery of oil – a product in great demand throughout the world, in Algeria, Libya and Egypt is constantly transforming the Sahara desert. Other minerals of importance that are found in the area include iron, phosphorus, manganese and uranium.
Q. What are the main physical features of Ladakh?
Ans: Ladakh is a cold desert lying in the Great Himalayas, on the eastern side of Jammu and Kashmir. The Karakoram Range in the north and the Zanskar mountains in the south enclose it. Several rivers flow through Ladakh, like Indus. The rivers form deep valleys and gorges. Several glaciers are found in Ladakh, like Gangri.
Q. Write about the main climatic features of Ladakh.
Ans: Due to its high altitude, the climate is extremely cold and dry. The air at this altitude is so thin that the heat of the sun can be felt intensely. The day temperatures in summer are just above zero degree and the night temperatures well below –30°C. It is freezing cold in the winters when the temperatures may
remain below –40°C for most of the time. Very little amount of rainfall are seen in this region.
Q. Which types of flora and fauna are found in Ladakh?
- Flora: Due to high aridity, the vegetation is sparse. There are scanty patches of grasses and shrubs for animals to graze. Groves of willows and poplars are seen in the valleys. During the summers, fruit trees such as apples, apricots and walnuts bloom.
- Fauna: Several species of birds like Robins, redstarts, Tibetan snowcock, raven and hoopoe are common. The animals of Ladakh are wild goats, wild sheep, yak and special kinds of dogs.