Question: Why iron and steel industry is known as basis industry?
Answer: Iron and steel industry is called as the basic industry because –
- This iron and steel industries provides the basic materials to the other industries like equipment for automobile industries, engineering or cotton textile industries etc.
- This is very helpful for providing employment.
- This steel and iron industries also provide equipment for agriculture.
Question: 2. Name any three physical and human factors that affect the location of industry.**
Physical factors and human factors both are important ,which affect the location of any industries. These factors are needed to start, functioning and to maintain low production cost of any industry. These factors are :
Physical factors –
- Availability of raw material
- Availability of water, power
- Suitable climate
- Availability of labour
- Availability of market, finance etc
- Well developed transport & communication network.
Question: 3. What is Agglomeration economy? ** (Manufacturing Industry)
Cities provide market and other facilities like banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants and financial advise etc. to the industries. Many industries tend to come together to make ,use of the advantages offered by the urban institutions. This is known as agglomeration economies.
Question: 4. How does textile industry occupy a unique position in Indian economy? **
Textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy because.
- It contributes 14% of industrial production.
- It has generated employment to 35 million people directly which is the second largest next to agriculture.
- Textile industry has contributed to 24.6%of foreign exchange earnings.
- It contributes to 4% of GDP.
- This is the only industry in India which is self –reliant and complete in the value chain i.e. from raw material to the highest value added products.
5. Why are the most of the jute mills of India located in West Bengal? ** (Manufacturing Industries)
The most of the jute mills are located in West Bengal because:
- About 90% of jute produced in the Ganga –Brahmaputra delta.Hence there is abundant and regular supply of jute.
- Coal gets from Raniganj coalfields, which is less 200 km away.
- Hoogly river provides fresh water in abundance it the industry for washing jute and jute goods.
- Cheap skilled and unskilled labour is available from the densely populated area.
- Cheap water transportation with a network of roads and railways help in collection of raw materials and distribute of finished goods.
- Hydel Power supply is available from the Damodar Valley Corporation.
6. What is the importance of the manufacturing industries ? * **
The importance of manufacturing industries are:
- Employment generation- manufacturing industries is the main source of the employment for the large number of skilled as well as unskilled workers.
- Foreign exchange – export of manufactured goods bring foreign exchange to India
- Reduction pressure on land – manufacturing industry produces products of daily needs and helps the common people to fulfill their basic needs. It reduces pressure on agriculture sector for employment.
- Removal of economic problems – industrial development is a precondition for the removal of economic problems like poverty, unemployment and economic inequality.It also helps in bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
7. How do industries pollute the environment? * ** (Manufacturing Industry)
Industries are the reason there is an increase in the pollution of land, water, air and noise resulting in the degradation of the environment.
- Air pollution: Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants ,and burning of fossils fuels in big and small factories because of which undesirable gases, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide contaminated the air cause pollution.
- Water Pollution: Organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents are often discharged into rivers by industries like paper ,pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries and electroplating. These kill the aquatic life and pollute the water and ecosystem.
- Noise Pollution: Industrial and construction activities create a lot of unwanted sound that can cause various physiological effects like hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Unwanted sounds are a source of stress.
8. Discuss the steps to be taken to minimize environmental degradation by industry. * **(Manufacturing Industry)
- Minimize the use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it.
- Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them into rivers and ponds.
- Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases through mechanical, biological, chemical and physical process.
- Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements.
- Use of machinery , generators and equipment with silencers.
- Almost all machinery re-design to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
9. The sugar industry is now shifting from north to south. Mention main reasons.* **
North India is the main centre of the sugar industry and Utter Pradesh is the leading producer. With time, the sugar industry is shifting towards south India.The main reason behind shifting of the sugar industry towards south India are :
- The sugar contain in the cane is higher in the Maharashtra and other southern states.
- Climate is more suitable for the cultivation of sugarcane in South India.
- South has better export facilities compare to north India.
- Cooperative sugar mills are more successful in management in south India.
- The peninsular climate help to extend the crushing season by two months in the south India Than north India.
10. Which factors are responsible for the decentralization of cotton textile mills in India ? What are the major problems of this industry? ** (Manufacturing Industry)
The factors responsible for the decentralization of cotton textile mills in India are:
- Cotton textile have a very high demand throughout country.
- Major inputs like banking, electricity and transportation is available in almost every part of India .
- Textile industry is labour intensive industry and labour is easily available in India.
- Textile industry requires less technological inputs and use very simple tools and machines
Problems: Major problems of cotton textile industry are – Lack of good quality long staple cotton, erratic power supply, out dated machinery and technology, Low input of workers and Staff, international competition.