Mineral and power resources – Class VIII

Mineral and power resources Class 8 Geography

Q. What is minerals?

Answer: Mineral means naturally occurring substances with unique chemical composition.

Q. What are the main characteristics of minerals?


  • Minerals are not equally distribute over space.
  • It takes millions of year for the formation of minerals.
  • More valuable minerals are very less amount that less valuable.
  • Minerals are exhaustible resource.
  • There are so many coloured minerals.
Q. Explain about different types of minerals.

Answer: Generally minerals are two types: metallic and non-metallic.

  • Metallic: This minerals are also two types. ferrous and non-ferrous.
    Metallic minerals are contains metal content and hard, conduct heat and electricity. Like iron ore, bauxite etc.
    Ferrous metallic minerals: it contains iron, like iron ore and manganese.
    Non-ferrous metallic minerals: these minerals not contains iron content.
  • Non-metallic minerals: these minerals do not contains metals. Like limestone, mica, gypsum etc. are examples of such kinds of minerals.
Q. What are the methods of minerals extraction?

Answer: There are generally three methods of mineral extraction:

  • Mining: the process of extraction of minerals. It may be open cast mining – extraction after removing the earth surface.
    or Shaft mining – in this type of extraction method deep bores are made. For example deep boring for petroleum extraction.
  • Drilling: Here deep well bored for extraction of minerals.
  • Quarrying: simply dug out of minerals from the near surface area.
Q. Discuss about the distribution of major minerals in the world.


  • Asia: Iron ore deposition in India and China. Indonesia Malaysia are the leading producer of tin. Manganese, bauxite mica also found in this continent.
  • Europe: Leading producer of iron ore. Copper, zinc, manganese, nickel etc are main minerals in this continent.
  • North America: Here great lakes and Appalachian mountain region is rich in deposition of different types of minerals. Iron ore, nickel, uranium etc. are main minerals in this region.
  • South America: Chile and Peru are leading producer of copper. Chromium, nickel, bauxite etc. are also found in this region.
  • Africa: Famous for gold production. chromium, uranium, cobalt etc. are found here.
  • Australia: Leading producer of bauxite.

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