Q1. Discuss about the classification of natural vegetation.
Ans: Natural vegetation is generally classified in to three broad categories as follows:
(a) Forests: Which grow where temperature and rainfall are plentiful to support a tree cover. Depending upon these factors, dense and open forest grown.
(b) Grasslands: Which grow in the region of moderate rain.
(c) Shrubs: Thorny shrurbs and scrubs grow in the dry region.
Q2. What are the relationship between landforms and natural vegetation.
Ans: From Salima’s observations, we surmise that there is a close relationship between height of land and the character of vegetations.
I) With the change in height, the climate changes and that changes natural vegetation.
II) The growth of vegetation depends on temperature and moisture.
III) It also depends on factors like slope and thickness of soil.
IV) The type and thickness of natural vegetation varies from place to place because of the variation in these factors.
Q3. What do you mean by tropical evergreen forest?
Ans: These forests are also called tropical rainforests. These regions are hot and received heavy rainfall throughout the year. As there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed their leaves altogether. This is the reason they are called evergreen.
Q4. What are the characteristics of tropical evergreen/rain forests?
1) These thick forests occur in the regions near the equator and close to the tropics.
2) As there is no particular dry season in this forests area, the trees do not shed their leaves altogether. This is the reason they are called evergreen.
3) The thick canopies of the closely spaced trees do not allow the sunlight to penetrate inside the forest even in the day time.
4) Three layers of the forests are found in this forests areas.
5) Hardwood trees like rosewood, ebony, mahogany are common here.
Q5. Write a short note on tropical deciduous forests.
Ans: These regions experience seasonal changes of climate. Trees shed their leaves in the dry season to conserve water. The hardwood trees found in these forests are sal, teak, neem and shisham. Tropical deciduous are the monsoon forests found in the large part of India,northern Australia and in central America.
Q6. What are the characteristics of tropical deciduous forests?
1) Trees shed their leaves in the dry season to conserve water.
2) The hardwood trees found in these forests are sal, teak, neem and shisham.
3) Hardwood trees are extremely useful for making furniture, transport and constructional materials.
4) Tigers, lions, elephants, langoors and monkeys are the common animals of these regions.
5) Tropical deciduous are the monsoon forests found in the large part of India,northern Australia and in central America.
Q7. Discuss about the temperate evergreen forests.
Ans: These forests are also evergreen like rainy forests, but found in mid-latitudinal coastal region not near the equator.
They are commonly found along the eastern margin of the continents, e.g., In south east USA, South China and in South East Brazil. They comprise both hard and soft wood trees like oak, pine, eucalyptus, etc.
Q8. Discuss about main features of temperate deciduous forests.
i) These are found in the north eastern part of USA, China, New Zealand, Chile and also found in the coastal regions of Western Europe.
ii) They shed their leaves in the dry season.
iii) The common trees are oak, ash, beech, etc.
iv) Deer, foxes, wolves are the animals commonly found.
v) Birds like pheasants, monals are also found here.
Q9. Discuss about main features of Mediterranean forests.
I) These forests are mostly found in the areas around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, Africa and Asia, hence the name.
II) This kind of vegetation is also found in the USA, south west Africa, south western South America and South west Australia.
III) These regions Let’s do are marked for hot dry summers and mild rainy winters.
IV) Citrus fruits such as oranges, figs, olives and grapes are commonly cultivated here.
V) There isn’t much wildlife here.
VI) Mediterranean trees adapt themselves to dry summers with the help of their thick barks and wax coated leaves which help them reduce transpiration.
VII) Mediterranean regions are known as ‘Orchards of the world’ for their fruit cultivation.
Q10. What is softwood forests? Mention it’s characteristics.
Coniferous Forests are also known as softwood forests, because of is soft wood trees like pine, far, willow etc.
I) In the higher latitudes (50° – 70°) of Northern
hemisphere the spectacular Coniferous forests are found.
II) These are also called as Taiga.
III) These are the trees which are tall, softwood evergreen trees.
IV) The woods of these trees are very useful for manufacturing paper and newsprint.
Match boxes and packing boxes are also made from
V) Chir, pine, cedar are the important variety of
trees in these forests.
VI) Silver fox, mink, polar bear are the common animals found here.
Q11. Which forests and why developed with wood industries?
Ans: Coniferous forest areas are more developed with wood industries. Because:
I) These forests provides soft and tall trees for the industry.
II) A single species of trees are grown together on a particular area, which is more essential for collecting trees for the industry.
III) Coniferous forests are mainly grown in higher latitudes area, where it is very easy to transport trees through the ice masses and numerous rivers.
IV) Base of the forests are clear, which helps to enter the forests area very easily.
Q12. What are the differences between tropical and temperate grasslands?
| Tropical grasslands
1. These occur on the either side of the equator and extend till the tropics.
2. This vegetation grows in the areas of moderate to low amount of rainfall area.
3. Savannah in Africa are this type grasslands.4. Elephants, zebras, giraffes, deers, leopards are common in this grasslands.
| temperate grasslands
1. These are found in the mid latitudinal zone and in the interior pary of the continents.
2. This vegetation grows in the low temperature zone where snowfall occur.
3. Velds of Africa, the Pampas in South America, Steppes in Eurasia are of this type.
4. Wild Buffaloes, bisons, antilopes are common in this grasslands.
Q13. Write different names of grasslands.
Ans: Grasslands are known by different names in different regions.
East Africa- Savanna, Brazil- Campos, Venezuela- Lanos
Argentina- Pampas, N. America- Prairie, S. Africa- Veld, C. Asia- Steppe, Australia- Down.
Q14. What are the main features of thorny bushes?
I) These are found in the dry desert like regions. Tropical deserts are located on the western margins of the continents.
II) The vegetation cover is scarce here because of scanty rain and scorching heat.
III) The growth of natural vegetation is very limited in the polar region.
III) Only mosses, lichens and very small shrubs are found here.
V) It grows during the very short summer. This is called Tundra type of vegetation.
VI) This vegetation is found in the polar areas of Europe, Asia and North America.
VII) The animals have thick fur and thick skin to
protect themselves from the cold climatic conditions. VIII) Seal, walruses, musk-oxen, Arctic owl, Polar bear and snow foxes are some of the animals found here.