Q1. How did some bug landlords or warrior chiefs establish their own kingdoms?
Ans: By the seventh century there were big landlords or warrior chiefs in different regions of the subcontinent. Existing kings often acknowledged them as their subordinates or samantas.
But, when these samantas gained power and wealth, they declared themselves to be maha-samanta, mahamandaleshvara (the great lord of a “circle” or region) and so on. Sometimes they asserted their independence from their overlords.
Q2 Write a short bo ‘Hiranya Garbha’.
Ans: Initially big landlords or samantas were subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka. In the mid-eighth century, Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief, overthrew his Chalukya overlord and performed a ritual called hiranya-garbha (literally, the golden womb) to establish his own kingdom.
Q3. Why some new kings adopted high sounding title?
Many of these new kings adopted high-sounding titles such as maharaja-adhiraja (great king, overlord of kings), tribhuvana-chakravartin (lord of the three worlds) and so on to show their power.
Q4. Discuss about the tripartite struggle.
Ans: One particularly prized area was the city of Kanauj in the Ganga valley. This place was very important for several resources. For centuries, rulers belonging to the Gurjara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties fought for control over Kanauj. Because there were three “parties” in this longdrawn conflict, historians often describe it as the “tripartite struggle”.
Q5. Write a short note on Prashastis.
Prashastis are special kind of inscriptions and is a Sanskrit word which means “in praise for”. Prashastis are glowing praises of kings and rulers, and were written by the poets of that time.
Prashastis contain details that may not be literally true. But they tell us how rulers wanted to depict themselves.
Q6. Why did many rulers try to attack to the temples of another kingdom?
Ans: Many rulers tried to demonstrate their power and resources by building large temples. So, when they attacked one another’s kingdoms, they often chose to target temples, which were sometimes extremely rich.