Q1. Write a short note on Goutam Buddha.
Ans: Siddhartha, also known as Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, was born about 2500 years ago. The Buddha belonged to a small gana known as the Sakya gana, and was a kshatriya. When he was a young man, he left the comforts of his home in search of knowledge. He decided to find his own path to realisation, and meditated for days on end under a peepal tree at Bodh Gaya in Bihar, where he attained enlightenment. After that, he was known as the Buddha or the Wise One. He then went to Sarnath, near Varanasi, where he taught for the first time. He passed away at Kusinara.
Q2. How did Goutam Buddha attain enlightenment?
Ans: When Goutam Buddha was a young man, he left the comforts of his home in search of knowledge. He wandered for several years, meeting and holding discussions with other thinkers. He finally decided to find his own path to realisation, and meditated for days on end under a peepal tree at Bodh Gaya in Bihar, where he attained enlightenment.
Q3. What is ‘tanha’ according to Goutam Buddha?
Ans: The Buddha taught that life is full of suffering and unhappiness. This is caused because we have cravings and desires. Sometimes, even if we get what we want, we are not satisfied, and want even more. The Buddha described this as thirst or tanha.
Q4. How did Buddha try to taught people?
i) Buddha taught that this constant craving could be removed by following moderation in everything.
ii) He also taught people to be kind, and to respect the lives of others, including animals.
iii) He believed that the results of our actions (called karma), whether good or bad, affect us both in this life and the next.
iv) The Buddha taught in the language of the ordinary people, Prakrit, so that everybody could understand his message.
Q5. Write a short note on Upanishad.
Upanishad literally means ‘approaching and sitting near’ and the texts contain conversations between teachers and students. Around the time of Buddha many thinkers wanted to know about life after death, why sacrifices should be performed. Many of their such kind of ideas were recorded in the Upanishads.
Q6. Who were the main Upanishad thinkers?
Ans: Upanishadic thinkers were men,especially brahmins and rajas. Occasionally, there is mention of women thinkers, such as Gargi, who was famous for her learning, and participated in debates held in royal courts. Poor people rarely took part in these discussions.
Q7. Who was Mahavira? How did he attain enlightenment?
Ans: The most famous thinker of the Jainas, Vardhamana Mahavira was a kshatriya prince of the Lichchhavis, a group that was part of the Vajji sangha.
At the age of thirty, he left home and went to live in a forest. For twelve years he led a hard and lonely life, at the end of which he attained enlightenment.
Q8. How did Mahavira suggest people to know about the truth of life?
Ans: Mahavira taught a simple doctrine: men and women who wished to know the truth must leave their homes. They must follow very strictly the rules of ahimsa, which means not hurting or killing living beings. “All beings,” said Mahavira “long to live. To all things life is dear.”
Q9. What were the rules followed by Jainas?
Ans: Followers of Mahavira, who were known as Jainas. They were followed some rules-
I) They had to lead very simple lives, begging for food.
II) They had to be absolutely honest, and were especially asked not to steal.
III) Also, they had to observe celibacy.
IV) Men had to give up everything, including their clothes.
Q10. Why did many people could not accept the rules Jainism?
Ans: It was very difficult for most men and women to follow strict rules of Jainism. Jainism was supported mainly by traders. But, farmers, who had to kill insects to protect their crops, found it more difficult to follow the rules.
Many more remained behindand supported those who became monks and nuns, providing them with food.
Q11. What do you mean by ‘Sangha’?
Ans: Both the Mahavira and the Buddha felt that only those who left their homes could gain true knowledge. They arranged for them to stay together in the sangha, an association of those who left their homes.