Peasants and Farmers
In this peasants and farmers chapter we will focus on the situations of different countries peasants and farmers.
- Agricultural revolution first occur in England.
- In between 1750 to 1850 about 6 million acres land was enclosed in England.
Question: Why did rich farmers enclosed their lands and drive out poor?
Answer: When the global demand of wool gradually increased, rich farmers starts to enhance their land. They was also eager to sheep rearing. Hence, these rich farmers enclosed their land to separate from each other. They separates their land to improve sheep breeding also.
Gradually these rich farmers drive out poor villagers and they prevents poor from entering their enclosed agricultural or sheep breading fields.
Question: Between the period of 1750-1900 the rate of food grains rapidly rose – why?
Answer: During this period English people increased rapidly. So many people started to migrate from rural to urban area in this time. For example male population starts to migrate in search of jobs in the urban centre. As a result, the demands of food grains increased. Naturally with the increasing demands the food grain price also rose.
Explain about the age of enclosure during the nineteenth century.
Answer: In the earlier time of enclosure land was not capable to produce as much as the increasing population. That means food grain production increased less than the increasing population. But, in the nineteenth century food grain also increased rapidly as with the increasing population. About 80% food grain production make possible to fulfill the demands of increasing population of England.
This rapid increasing food grain was not for the result of any kind of innovation for agriculture in this 19th century. But this increasing food grain become possible after the new policy of land enclosure. In this period food grain increasing happened after bringing the new land under cultivation. Like pastureland, undulating land and cut up forest land etc. comes under cultivation. Hence, this 19th century was known as the age of enclosure.
Question: What happened to the poor after the age of enclosure?
- The poor people were displaced from their land.
- They were not allowed to collect forests products.
- Gradually poor lost their customary rights.
- Poor moved to the southern part of England, which area was intensive agriculture system. But nowhere poor people find their job to live.
- Poor became paid worker during the time of harvesting only.