Population – Class 9 Geography
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**1. What is demography?
Ans. Demography means the study of the characteristics of human population.
***2. What do you understand by the term population density?
Ans. The number of people living per unit area is called population density.
***3. Why the rate of population growth in India has declined since 1981? Explain any three reasons.
Ans: The rate of population growth in India is declining since 1981 because the birth rates have declined rapidly. This is due to following reasons:
Improvement in female education and literacy, due to which they realized the need of a small family.
Better healthcare facilities have improved life expectancy at birth. This help in lowering the birth rate.
The positive effect of birth control measures.
***4. Describe the factors that cause changes in the size of population?
Ans: The population growth depends on the process of birth rate, death rate and migration.
Thus, major components of population growth are following:
Birth Rate: It is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.
Death rate: It is also one of the major components of population growth and it is the number of death per thousand persons in a year.
Migration: It is the movement of people across regions and territories.
***5. What is the relation between occupational structure and development?
Ans: Occupational structure means the number of population engaged in different economic sectors. Occupations are generally classified as primary (agriculture, mining, fishing, etc.), secondary (manufacturing industries) and tertiary (banking, transport, communication, etc.).
The development of a country depends on different sectors working population. In the case of developed nations, maximum populations are engaged on secondary and tertiary activities. But, in the case of developing and under developed countries maximum peoples are engaged in primary or agricultural sectors.
**6.What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
Ans: Some advantages of having a healthy population are:
Whatever amount of money is needed for the unhealthy people, that can be used for other developmental works.
They will minimize the pressure on working population after becoming independent easily. Healthy people can do any kind of works very easily and that helps to grow the ultimate national income of a country.
***7. Explain about the salient features of national population policy – 2000.
Ans: Significant features of Population Policy, 2000 are:
- Free and compulsory education for upto 14 years old children.
- Reducing the rate of infant mortality rate below 30.
- Achieving universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
- Promoting delayed marriage or girls and strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage.
- Making family welfare and people centered programme.
- Protection of adolescent girls from unwanted pregnancies.
- Protection of adolescents from Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STD) and educate them about the risks of unprotected sex.
- Making contraceptive services accessible and affordable.
- Providing food supplement and nutritional services for the adolescents.