Q1. Who brought the knowledge of woodblock printing in Europe?
Ans. Marco Polo brought the knowledge of woodblock printing in Europe.
Q2. What do you know about Heretical beliefs?
Ans. Beliefs which do not follow the accepted teachings after Church are called Heretical. In medieval times, heresy was seen as a threat to the right of the Church to decide on what should be believed and what should not. Heretical beliefs were severely punished.
Q3. What is an Almanac? (Print Culture And The Modern World)
Ans. An annual publication providing astronomical data, information about the movements of sun and moon, timings of full tides and eclipses and much else that was of importance in the everyday life of people is called an Almanac.
Q4 Over which matters were there intense controversies between social and religious reformers and the Hindi orthodoxy in the early 19th century? .**
Ans. In the early 19th century, there were intense controversies between social and religious reformers and the Hindi orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and idolatry.
Q5. How did printing press become useful? **
Ans. Printing press produced multiple copies of the books very quickly. It also saved a lot of labour and time. Moreover, the availability of a large number of books created a new culture of reading among the people.
Q6. Why was mass literacy of workers in Europe started in the 19th century? **
Ans. From 17th century onwards, lending libraries existed in Europe. But in the 19th century, these lending libraries were helpful in educating people of lower-middle class, white collar workers, artisans, etc. That is why mass literacy of workers was started in Europe in the 19th century.
Q7. How was the uses of print diversified in China by the 17th century? **
Ans. In the 17th century, the uses of print were diversified in China in the following ways:
- By the 17th century, urban culture bloomed in China. It diversified the uses of print. Print was no longer just used by scholar-officials.
- Merchants use print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information. Reading increasingly became a leisure activity.
- The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of literary masterpieces and romantic plays.
- Rich women began to read, and many women began publishing their poetry and plays. Wives of scholar-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives.
Q8. Write a short note on Ukiyo. ***
Ans. (i) Ukiyo was a popular art form of Japan. Many artists contributed for this art form, especially Kitagawa Utamaro. Utamaro was famous for their contribution to Ukiyo depicting ordinary human experiences.
(ii) Publishers like TsutayaJuzaburo recognized subjects and commissioned artists who drew the outline of the theme.
(iii) A skilled woodblock carver would then paste the drawing on a woodblock and carve a printing block to reproduce the painter’s lines. In this process, the original drawing would get destroyed and only its print would survive.
Q9. ‘Martin Luther was in favour of print and spoke out in praise of it.’ Explain. **
- Martin Luther was a great Protestant reformer of Germany. He deeply appreciated print. He considered printing as ‘the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one’. It was through it that people could be persuade to think differently and moved to action.
- In 1517, Martin Luther wrote the ‘Ninety Five Theses’ in which he criticized many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. A printed copy of this was posted on a Church door in Wittenberg.
- It challenged the Church to debate his ideas. Luther’s writings were immediately reproduced in vast numbers and read widely.
- This led to a division within the Church and to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
- In this way, print created a new intellectual atmosphere and helped in spreading new ideas in various languages.
This is why Martin Luther was in favor of print and spoke out in praise of it.
Q10. What restrictions were imposed on Indian Press after the passing of Vernacular Press Act of 1878? ***
Ans. The restrictions imposed on Indian Press after the passing of Vernacular Press Act of 1878 were:
- Vernacular Press Act passed in 1878 was modeled on the lines of the Irish Press Laws. With this Act, Government got extensive rights to censor editorials and reports in vernacular press.
- After this, government kept regular check on the vernacular newspapers which were published in different provinces of the country.
- When any report was judged to be against the government then the newspaper was warned. If the warning was ignored by the press then it was liable to be seized and the printing machinery confiscated.
Q11. Explain how print culture assisted the growth of nationalism in India. ***OR
How did press play an important role in spreading nationalism in India in later part of the 19th century?
- Print culture played a vital role in growth of nationalism in India. Indian press criticized the British policies and put forward the Indian view point.
- They reported on colonial misrule and encourage nationalist activities. Attempts to curb nationalist criticism provoked militant protest. This, in turn, led to a renewed cycle of protest and struggles.
- Newspaper like The Hindu, Bombay Samachar, Indian Mirror, Amrit Bazar patrika, Kesarietc. had a great influence on Indian people.
- Print culture changed the outlook of the Indians and they began to study about the contemporary national movements in the European nations. They were able to understand the ill effects of colonial rule.
- National literature in forms of novels, essays, plays patriotic poetry urged the people to unite and work for national welfare. The writings of political philosophers like Rousseau, Mill, and Montesquieu etc. enabled the Indians to learn about liberty and democracy.
Hence, the nationalist writings prepared the people of India to launch a powerful movement against the British.