Resources and Development
Question: What are resources?
Answer: (Resources Development) whatever thinks are available around us and they are able to fulfill our demand is called as resources. These materials may be touchable or intangible. It may be biotic or abiotic, but these are applicable or usable for human beings. These are culturally acceptable and technologically available and eco-friendly.
Question: Human beings are playing dual role for the creation of resources – explain.
Answer: Human beings are the creator and the consumer also. In this way they are playing the dual role for the creation of resources. For example with help of knowledge or technology human beings are using natural substances as the resources. In other word, human beings can transform natural substances to the resources. After that of the creation of resources human beings it uses these resources for their development. In this way they are playing the dual role for the creation of resources.
Question: ‘There are different types of resources’ – explain with example.
Answer: There are so many bases of resource classification, which are as follows:
- Biotic resources: These resources are obtained from biosphere that means these resources have life. For example plants, human beings, or other flora and fauna come under this category.
- Abiotic resources: These resources do not have life. For example soil, air, sunlight, minerals etc. are some exa,ples of abiotic resources.
- Renewable resources: These resources can be reproduced or renewed. For example forests, fishes, sunlight, water etc. are some example of such kind of resources.
- Non-renewable resources: These resources are not capable to renew or reproduce. These are exhaustible. For example coal or other minerals like petroleum etc. are some example of such kind of resources.
- Individual resources: These resources are privately owned by individuals. For example land, houses, cars etc are some example of individual resources.
- Community resources: These resources have community rights. For example village ponds, grazing ground, burial grounds etc. are some examples of this resources.
- National resources: These resources have the rights to the nation. For example railways, roads etc. are some examples.
- International resources: No one of the nation or country have the rights on it. For example ozone layer, oceanic resources beyond 12 nautical miles.
Status of development basis:
- Potential resources: These resources have the probability to use for the developmental purposes. Still now these are not using. For example potentiality of solar energy in the western part of Rajasthan in India.
- Developed resources: These resources are already using for human beings. For example petroleum, coal etc.
Question: Resource Planning is essential – explain.
Answer: Resources are most vital for human survival for maintaining the quality of life. It is believed that these resources are free gifts of the nature. As a result, human beings are using them according to their demand and this led to the major problems.
- Resource depletion for satisfying the greed of few people.
- Accumulation of resources in few region and few hands, which in turn, divides the society into two parts i.e. rich and poor.
- Indiscriminate uses of resources have led to ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, pollution and degradation of land etc.
Hence, resource planning is very essential for sustainable existence of life. Sustainable existence is a part of sustainable development.
Question: Resource Planning is essential – explain about the process of resource planning.
Ans: This is a complex process which involves:
- Identification or inventory of resources across the regions. This includes surveying, mapping or qualitative and quantitative estimation and then measurement of resources.
- Planning structure endowed with appropriate technological development, skill and institutional set up for implementation.
- Lastly we have to match the resource development plans with whole national development plans.
Question: What do you mean by sustainable development?
Ans: Sustainable development means ‘development without damaging the environment. Here development should take place without any harmful effect on the environment. And present developmental process should not compromise with the needs of the future generations also.’
Question: Why resource conservation is necessary – Explain?
Ans: Resources are most vital for any kind of developmental activity. But unequal consumption and over-utilization of resources may causes to the environmental or socio-economic problems. To solve these problems, resource conservation is very essential.
Question: What do you mean by ‘Agenda 21’? Write its two principles.
- Agenda 21 is the declaration or announcement signed by world leaders in 1992 in the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). This declaration took place at Rio-de-Janeiro, in Brazil. The main aims of this conference was achieving sustainable development throughout the world.
- The principles are:-
Firstly, this agenda was to mitigate environmental damage, poverty and disease through global co-operation, mutual needs and shared responsibilities.
Secondly, every local government should draw its own local Agenda regarding this problems and steps to solve.
Question: Explain about major problems due to indiscriminate access of resources?
- Resources depletion is common for satisfying the greed of a few people.
- The resources are mainly accumulated in a few peoples hand, as a result it divide the society into two parts, i.e. rich and poor.
- Unequal use of resources has led to ecological crises such as global warming, ozone depletion, pollution and land degradation also.
- Deforestation, over-grazing, construction and mining etc. are main causes of soil erosion.
- Mining sites are vulnerable for over-burdening.
Question: How do you want to solve the problem of land degradation in India? Explain about some solutions?
- The vegetation is the protective cover to the land. They does not allow the rain water to fall straight on the land, thus, helps to reduce soil erosion. Afforestation helps to solve land degradation problem.
- Shelter belts may be used on the front line of the desert areas.
- In semi-desert areas, land degradation can be reduced through the new process of cultivation technique. This technique is based on soil moisture conservation.
- The industrial wastes are major sources of land degradation. Hence, effective steps must be taken for the proper discharge and disposal of industrial wastes.
- We have to minimize over-grazing.
- It is also necessary to minimize the shifting of sand dunes in the desert or dry areas. Here we can plant thorny bushes in this zone.
Question: Explain about some ways to control soil erosion in hilly regions?
- Soil erosion: The removal of soil cover and washing down is called as soil erosion. Following are some ways to control soil erosion in hilly areas:
- Contour Plugging : Plugging along the contour lines reduce the flow of water towards the down slope.
- Terrace cultivation: Steps may be used on the slopes for making terraces. Terrace cultivation reduces the soil erosion.
- Strip cropping: Large fields may be divided into small strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the two crops. This reduce the force of the wind and minimize the soil erosion.
- Shelter belts: Between the crops, trees plantation for creating shelter, called as shelter belts. These shelter belts stabilize the formation of sand dunes.
Question: Explain about soil conservation? Write any four methods of soil conservation with suitable condition in India.
(1) Soil conservation means the management strategies for prevention of soil eroded from the Earth’s surface or becoming chemically change due to over use, acid reaction, Salinity or other chemical contamination.
(2) Four methods of soil conservation areas under:
- Afforestation: The best way to preserve soil is to maximize forest area. We will organize awareness programme to stop illegal cutting of trees and to plant new trees. A minimum area of forest land for the whole country is between 20 to 25 per cent. 20 per cent for the plains and 60 per cent for hilly and mountainous regions should be maintained.
- Minimizing Overgrazing: Overgrazing for the animals especially goats and sheep should be properly checked. Separate grazing lands we can use. Animals are generally freely moves towards the fields which spoil the soil by their hoofs causes’ soil erosion. We have to take action to control this.
- Constructing Dams: Much of the soil erosion occurred near the river valley region. Here checking of over flow through the construction of dams across the river is essential.
- Changing Agricultural Practices: We can save the soil by new agricultural practices. For example crop rotation.
Question: Explain about the factors affecting the soil formation?
Soil is very important renewable and natural resource. It helps to grow plants and supports different types of living organisms on the environment. The soil is the results of following factors:
- Relief: Steep slopes like in the mountainous area have thin soil layer due to erosion. But, thick fertile soils are common in the valleys and lowlands due to slope factor.
- Parent rocks: Soils forms by the process of weathering of rocks, known as parent rocks. There are different types of soil on the basis of this parent material.
- Climate: The process of weathering depends on the moisture content, dryness, etc. which are climatic elements.
- Vegetation: The amount of humus in the soil controlled by the vegetation cover on the land. Areas under thick vegetation are more fertile due to more humus content.
- (v) Time: For the formation of a single layer it takes millions of year.