Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Question: What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people? (Rise of Nationalism in Europe)
- A new French flag, the tricolor, was chosen to replace the former royal standard
- New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation
- A centralized administrative system was put in place
- Uniform laws for all citizens
- A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted
- French, became the common language of the nation
Question: Explain the revolutionary principles incorporated by Napoleon in the administration of France during his regime?
- Established equality before the law and secured the right to property
- Abolished the feudal system
- Freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues
- Standardized weights and measures
- A common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another
Question: Enumerate any three features of the conservative regime set up in Europe following the defeat of Napoleon after 1815?
- Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family – should be preserved
- Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary day
- They realized, from the changes initiated by Napoleon, that modernization could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy
- A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe
Question: What was the impact of Vienna on European people? Write any three.
- The Bourbon dynasty was restored to power
- France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
- A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.
Question: Explain what is meant by the ‘1848 revolution of the liberals’. What are the political, social and economic ideas supported by the Liberals?
- For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law
- Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent
- Liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privilege
- A constitution and representative government through parliament
- Socially, the liberals supported the abolition of discrimination based on birth.
- In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital
Question: How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of the ‘nation’ in Europe? Explain with examples.
- Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation: art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings
- Romantic artists and poets generally criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings
German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people
- It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularized. So collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation-building.
- The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate
- Poland, celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
Question: “The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe.” Support the statement with examples.
- The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe
- In most countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment.
- Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England
- In those regions of Europe where the aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations
- The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.
Question: Describe the process of unification of Germany. (Rise of Nationalism in Europe)
- Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament
- This liberal initiative to nation-building was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military of Prussia
- Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification
- Its chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy
- Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871
Question: Briefly trace the process of the unification of Italy? (Rise of Nationalism in Europe)
- Italy had a long history of political fragmentation
- Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multi-national Habsburg Empire
- The unification process was led by three revolutionaries-Guiseppe Mazzini,Count de cavour and Garibaldi.
- During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic
- The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war.
- Cavour now led the movement to unify the regions of Italy.
- Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859
- Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fray
- In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers
- In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.
Question: Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in Which they were portrayed?
- Marianne and Germania were the female allegories of France and Germany respectively.
- The female allegory stood as personifications of ‘Republic’ and ‘Liberty’.
- They were portrayed such that would instills a sense of nationality in the citizens of these country.
- Marianne characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolor, the cockade
- Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity
- Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism
Question: Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
Or“The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area of Balkans.”Justify. OR “The Balkan issue was one of the major factors responsible for the First World War.”Explain by giving examples. (Rise of Nationalism in Europe)
- The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
- A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
- The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
The Ottoman Empire tried to control the situation by strengthens itself through modernization and internal reforms but in vain.
- One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.
- In the race to expand their territories and to impose their supremacy on each others, Slavic nationalists quickly got into severe clashes. As a result the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.
- During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might
- These rivalries were very evident in the way the Balkan problem unfolded.
- This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.