Q1. Write a short note on Qutub Minar.
Ans: Qutbuddin Aybak had this constructed around 1199. The surface of the minar is curved and angular. Placing an inscription on such a surface required great precision. Only the most skilled craftsperson could perform this task. Remember that very few buildings were made of stone or brick 800 years ago.
Q2. Discuss about different kinds of structure were built in the eighth and eighteenth centuries.
Ans: Between the eighth and the eighteenth centuries kings and their officers built two kinds of structures:
I) The first were forts, palaces and tombs – safe, protected and grandiose places of rest in this world and the next;
II) The second were structures meant for public activity including temples, mosques, tanks, wells, caravan serais and bazaars.
Q3. What do you mean by ‘trabeate’ or ‘corbelled’?
Between the seventh and tenth centuries architects started adding more rooms, doors and windows to buildings. Roofs, doors and windows were still made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns, a style of architecture called “trabeate” or “corbelled”.
Q4. Explain about the technological and stylistic development in 12th century.
Ans: Two technological and stylistic developments are noticeable from the twelfth century.
(1) The weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was sometimes carried by arches. This architectural form was called “arcuate”. (Q. What is arcuate?)
(2) Limestone cement was increasingly used in construction. This made construction of large structures easier and faster.
Q5. Why did some rulers beautifully construct temples or mosques?
Ans: Temples and mosques were beautifully constructed because they were places of worship. They were also meant to demonstrate the power, wealth and devotion of the patron.
Q6. What do you mean by ‘hauz-i-Sultani/Kings reservoir?
Ans: Sultan Iltutmish won universal respect for constructing a large reservoir just outside Dehli-i kuhna. It was called the hauz-i Sultani or the “King’s Reservoir”.
Q7. How did some temples or mosques destroy?
Generally kings built temples to demonstrate their devotion to God and their power and wealth. This is why, it is not surprising that when they attacked one another’s kingdoms, they always tried to capture this temples and destroyed also.