The ‘Solar Radiation-Heat Balance and Temperature’ – these are very much related with the the position of the sun and so many other factors etc.
- Insolation: Insolation means the energy received from the earth. The earth surface receive about 1.94 calories per sq.cm per minute.
- Aphelion: The process of revolution of the earth occurs through elliptical way. On 4th July the distance between the sun and the earth become maximum (about 152 million km.), the situation is called as the ‘aphelion’.
- Perihelion: Same as above, and on 3rd January, the distance between the sun and the earth become minimum (about 147 million km.), the position is called as perihelion.
- Factors responsible for insolation: rotation of the earth, angle of inclination of the earth, length of the day, transparency of the atmosphere etc.
The earth’s axis inclination – 66.5 degree. (Solar Radiation-Heat Balance and Temperature)
- Conduction: This is the process where air gets temperature through the contact of the earth surface and then gradually another layer gets warmer.
- Convection: When the warm air moves upward and transfer temperature to the atmosphere is known as convection.
- Advection: When the temperature transfer in a horizontal direction is known as advection.
- Albedo: about 35% of the received solar energy directly reflect to the space without warming the surface of the earth or the atmosphere. This is known as albedo of the earth.
- Among the 35% of albedo about 27% radiation directly reflect back from the top of the cloud.
- Except 35% albedo 65% solar radiation is active on the earth or in atmosphere.
- Heat Budget: The incoming solar radiation consider as 100% solar radiation. This 100% radiation come to to the earth and reflect also same amount to the space through different media. This process of incoming and outgoing solar radiation is called as heat budget.
- Factors controlling the distribution of temperature: latitude, distance from the sea, altitude or height, ocean current and local aspects etc. Read previous chapter…