The Age of Industrialization
Question: Which city developed as a finishing centre in Britain?
Question: Why did the women workers in Britain attack the spinning Jenny?
Ans- The reason was the fear of losing their jobs because the spinning jenny speeds up the Spinning process and reduced labour demand.
Question: Who were ‘jobbers’?
Ans- Jobbers were old and trusted industrial workers, who got people from their villages, ensured those jobs and help them settle down in the cities.
Question: What is proto-industrialization?
Ans- Even before the emergence of the factory system of (and later along with it ) industrial output had been produced in a more fragmented way by guilds and other similar groups of organized skilled workforce. This has often been called proto- industrialization that existed even before the industrialization.
Question: Why were merchants not able to expand productions within the towns of England?
- Town or urban craft and trade guild were extremely powerful
- The guild controlled the prices as well as manufacturing.
- They did not let any outside trade and control local market without permission
Question: Why did some industrialist in nineteenth century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
- In Victorian Britain there was no shortage of human labour.
- In many industries the demand of labour was seasonal.
- A range of products could be produced only with hand labour.
- In Victorian Britain, the upper classes – the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie –preferred things produced by hand.
Question: How did a series of invention in the 18th century increase the efficiency of each step of the production process in cotton textile industry? Explain.
- A series of inventions increased the efficacy of each step of production process ( carding ,twisting, spinning and rolling )
- They enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more.
- Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill, by now costly machines could be purchased, set up and maintained in the mill.
- Within the mill all the production process could be brought under one roof and management.
- In the mill there was a careful supervision of production process, a watch over quality and the regulation of the labour.
Question: In what ways proto-industrialization helped the poor farmers?
- By working for the merchants, the poor farmers could remain in the countryside and could cultivate on their small plots.
- Income from proto –industrial production supplemented their shrinking income
- It allowed them fuller use of their family labour resources.
Question: What problems were faced by the Indian cotton weavers in the 19th century? Discuss.
- The export market of the Indian Cotton weavers collapsed.
- The local market shrank; the Indian market was being glutted with Manchester imports.
- By the 1860s, weavers faced a new problem. They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality. When the American Civil War broke out and cotton supplies from the US were cut off, Britain turned to India. As raw cotton exports from India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up.
- Factories in India began production, flooding the market with machine-goods.
Question: Describe the role of early entrepreneurs of India in the development of industries.
- In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune in the China trade before he turned to industrial investment.
- In Bombay, Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata who built huge industrial empires in India accumulated their initial wealth partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
- Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman who set up the first Indian jute mill Calcutta in 1917, also traded with China.
- The father and grandfather of G.D. Birla also traded with China in the 18 and 19 centuries.
Question: Who were Gomasthas? How did they become good partners of the British management system?
- Ans – The Company appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
- It developed a system of management and control that could eliminate competition and control cost.
- They did not allow the company weavers to sell their products to other buyers.
Question: How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers? ***
- The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
- It prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers. One way of doing this was through the system of advances. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production.
Question: Why did the industrial production in India increase during the First World War?
- The war created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined.
- Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply. As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items.
- New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. Over the war years industrial production boomed.
- Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market.
Question: How was marketing of British goods done in India?
- One way in which new consumers are created is through advertisement
- Advertisement makes products appear desirable and necessary.
- When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they put labels on the cloth bundles. The label was needed to make the place of manufacture and the name of the company familiar to the buyer.
- Images of Indian gods and goddesses regularly appeared on these labels.
- By the late nineteenth century, manufacturers were printing calendars to popularize their products
- The images of gods, figures of important personages, of emperors and nawabs, adorned advertisement and calendars.