The Making of Regional Cultures
Q. Write a short note on Cheras.
Ans: The Chera kingdom of Mahodayapuram was established in the ninth century in the south-western part of the peninsula, part of present-day Kerala. It is likely that Malayalam was spoken in this area. In fact, this is one of the earliest examples of the use of a regional language in official records in the subcontinent.
Q. What do you know about the cult of Jagannatha?
Ans: In some regions, regional cultures grew around religious traditions. The best example of this process is the cult of Jagannatha (literally, lord of the world, a name for Vishnu) at Puri, Orissa. To date, the local tribal people make the wooden image of the deity, which suggests that the deity was originally a local god, who was later identified with Vishnu.
Q. what happened to the Jagannatha temple in twelfth century?
Ans: In the twelfth century, one of the most important rulers of the Ganga dynasty, Anantavarman, decided to erect a temple for Purushottama Jagannatha at Puri. Subsequently, in 1230, king Anangabhima III dedicated his kingdom to the deity and proclaimed himself as the “deputy” of the god.
Q. Why did the British company try to control over the temples?
Ans: As the temple gained in importance as a centre of pilgrimage, its authority in social and political matters also increased. The English East India Company, attempted to gain control over the temple. They felt that this would make their rule acceptable to the local people.
Q. How the heroism of Rajputs were recorded and why?
Ans: Stories about Rajput heroes were recorded in poems and songs, which were recited by specially trained minstrels. These preserved the memories of heroes and were expected to inspire others to follow their example. Ordinary people were also attracted by these stories – which often depicted dramatic situations, and a range of strong emotions – loyalty, friendship, love, valour, anger, etc.
Q. What do you know about Kathak? (The Making of Regional Cultures)
Ans: Kathak, now associated with several parts of north India. The term kathak is derived from katha, a word used in Sanskrit and other languages for story. The kathaks were originally a caste of story-tellers in temples of north India, who embellished their performances with gestures and songs.
Q. How did Kathak spread in different parts our country as a cultural form?
Ans: Under the Mughal emperors and their nobles, Kathak was performed in the court. Subsequently, it developed in two traditions or gharanas: one in the courts of Rajasthan (Jaipur) and the other in Lucknow. Under the patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, it grew into a major art form. It also spread in Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh as a dance form.
Q. How the Mughal emperors patronised their painters?
Ans: The Mughal emperors Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan patronised highly skilled painters. These were generally painted in brilliant colours and portrayed court scenes, scenes of battle or hunting, and other aspects of social life.