Q1. Who were the Mughals?
The Mughals were descendants of two great lineages of rulers. From their mother’s side they were descendants of Genghis Khan, ruler of the Mongol tribes, China and Central Asia. From their father’s side they were the successors of Timur, the ruler of Iran, Iraq and modern-day Turkey.
Q2. Who was forced Babur to leave his ancestral throne?
Ans: Babur, the first Mughal emperor, succeeded to the throne of Ferghana in 1494 when he was only 12 years old. He was forced to leave his ancestral throne due to the invasion of another Mongol group, the Uzbegs.
Q3. How did Babur establish Mughal power in Delhi or in India?
When Babur was 12 years old, he defeated by Uzbegs and he wandered several places. After years of wandering he seized Kabul in 1504. In 1526 he defeated the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at Panipat and captured Delhi and Agra.
Q4. How did the Rajputs become more important in Mughal period?
Ans: The Mughal rulers campaigned constantly against rulers who refused to accept their authority. But as the Mughals became powerful many other rulers also joined them voluntarily. The Rajputs are a good example of this. Many of them married their daughters into Mughal families and received high positions.
Q5. What was the relationship between Mansabdar and the Jagir?
Ans: The term mansabdar refers to an individual who holds a mansab, meaning a position or rank. Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs which were somewhat like iqtas. But unlike muqtis, most mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their jagirs.
Q6. Write a short note on zat.
Ans: Rank and salary were determined by a numerical value in Mughal kingdoms called zat. The higher the zat, the more prestigious was the noble’s position in court and the larger his salary.
Q7. Write a short note on zabt.
What do you mean by zabt?
Ans: Akbar’s revenue minister, Todar Mal, carried out a careful survey of crop yields, prices and areas cultivated for a ten-year period, 1570-1580. Tax was fixed on each crop in cash. Each province was divided into revenue circles with its own schedule of revenue rates for individual crops. This revenue system was known as zabt.
Q8. What were the central provinces under the control of the Mughals?
Ans: Delhi, Gujraat, Bihar, Bengal, Orissa, Kabul, Sindh, Mewar, Marwar, and deccan parts were the central provinces under the control of the Mughals.