Tracing the Changes Through a Thousand Years
- The medieval era spans from eight to the eighteenth century. (Tracing the Changes Through a Thousand Years)
- This chapter tell us about some of those major historical changes which took place in India from second half of the 8th century up to the first of the 18th century.
- Inscription, coins ,architecture and textual records are the main sources for studying history of the medieval era.
- In the thirteenth century , Minhaj-i-Siraj the term ‘Hindustan for the first time.
- Early Sixteenth century Babur used Hindustan to describe the geography, the fauna and the culture of the inhabitants of the subcontinent.
- In the fourteenth century, poet Amir Khusrau used the word “Hind ‘in the similar sense.
- A number of social and economic changes come during this age.For example ,new variety of food ,new changes in the field of agriculture technology like use of Persian wheel and gradual clearing of new areas of forests and extension of agriculture.
Question. Who is a Cartographer?
Ans– Cartographer is a person who makes maps.
Question. Write the names of modern countries that comprise that Indian subcontinent?
Ans– India,Afghanistan, Pakistan ,Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan are the six countries that comprise the Indian subcontinent.
3. Who were Scribes ? (Tracing the Changes Through a Thousand Years)
Ans– Scribes were the people who copied manuscripts.
4. Who was Al-Idrisi? (Tracing the Changes Through a Thousand Years)
Ans– Al-Idrisi was an Arab cartographer.
5. Who was Minhaj-i-siraj? (Tracing the Changes Through a Thousand Years)
Ans– Minhaj-i-siraj was a thirteenth century chronicler who wrote in Persian.
Q1. How/why did the term ‘Hisdustan’ start to use for our country?
Ans: In the early sixteenth century Babur used Hindustan to describe the geography, the fauna and the culture of the inhabitants of the subcontinent. Similar to the way the fourteenth-century poet Amir Khusrau used the word “Hind”. While the idea of a geographical and cultural entity like “India” did exist, the term “Hindustan” did not carry the political and national meanings which we associate with it today.
Q2. What do you mean by ‘foreigner’?
Ans: “Foreigner” is used today to mean someone who is not an Indian. In the medieval period a “foreigner” was any stranger who appeared say in a given village, some one who was not a part of that society or culture. (In Hindi the term pardesi might be used to describe such a person and in Persian, ajnabi).
Q3. What are the sources for knowing the pasts to the historians?
Ans: Historians use different types of sources to learn about the past depending upon the period of their study and the nature of their investigation. They still rely on coins, inscriptions, architecture and textual records for information.
They slowly displaced other types of available information. Through this period paper gradually became cheaper and more widely available.
These manuscripts and documents provide a lot of detailed information to historians but they are also difficult to use.
Q4. What do you mean by archive? (Tracing the Changes Through a Thousand Years)
Ans: A place where historical documents and manuscripts are stored. Today all national and state governments have archives where they keep all their old official records and transactions.
Q5. Why the study of the thousand years between 700 and 1750 is a huge challenge to historians?
Ans: The study of the thousand years between 700 and 1750 is a huge challenge to historians largely.
Because of the scale and variety of developments that occurred over this period. At different moments in this period new technologies made their appearance – like the Persian wheel in irrigation, the spinning wheel in weaving, and fire arms in combat. New foods and beverages arrived in the subcontinent – potatoes, corn, chillies, tea and coffee.
Q6. Write a short note on ‘Jatis’ formation.
During the period of 700 to 1750 large variety of development occurred. This was also a period of great mobility. Groups of people travelled long distances in search of opportunity. Some groups of people became more important and claimed as higher castes.
Throughout this period there was a gradual clearing of forests and the extension of agriculture, a change faster and more complete in some areas than in others. In this way some forest dwellers fixed to migrate and others started farming. Hence the society became more complicated. and divided into different sub castes, which is also known as Jatis.
Q7. What do you mean by jati panchayat?
Ans: Jatis sub-castes people framed their own rules and regulations to manage the conduct of their members. These regulations were enforced by an assembly of elders, described in some areas as the jati panchayat. But jatis were also required to follow the rules of their villages. Together they were only one small unit of a state.
Q8. Write a short note on pan-regional.
Ans: By 700 many regions already possessed distinct geographical dimensions and their own language and cultural characteristics. They were also with specific ruling dynasties. There was considerable conflict between these states. Occasionally dynasties like the Cholas, Khaljis, Tughluqs and Mughals were able to build an empire that was pan-regional – an influencing region.
Q9. What do you mean by patrons?
Ans: An influential,wealthy individual who supports another person –an artiste,a crafts person, a learned man, or a noble.
Q10. How did the Brahmanas increase their power during 700 to 1750?
It was during this period that important changes occurred in what we call Hinduism today. These included the worship of new deities, the construction of temples by royalty and the growing importance of Brahmanas, the priests, as dominant groups in society. Their knowledge of Sanskrit texts earned the Brahmanas a lot of respect