Question: Write a short note on Birsa Munda. (Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age)
Answer: Birsa Munda was the hero of the tribal society in Chhotanagapur region of Bihar. Birsa was born in the mid- 1870s in a Munda family. He had the miraculous power. Therefore tribal people followed him.
Question: How Birsa Munda became most popular among the tribal people?
Answer: Birsa Munda was very popular among the tribal people. Birsa Munda had miraculous power and declared that he had appointed by God (Bhagwan). In this way people start to follow Birsa Munda to solve their problems. Birsa Munda could cure many diseases and many grains. Therefore he became most popular among the tribal people in Chhotanagpur region including Santhal and Oraon traibes.
Question: What were the main activities of the tribal people in the nineteenth century?
Answer: In nineteenth century many tribal groups in different part of India practiced different type of activities. For example they were practiced jhum cultivation, hunting, gathering, animal rearing etc. and some took to settled for cultivation.
These cultivators cut the treetops to allow the sunlight to reach to the ground for cultivation. They used ashes for cultivation after burning trees or jungles.
These tribes were hunted animals or collected different type of foods from the forests area.
Question: How did the tribal people affected by colonial rule?
Answer: Before the colonial rule generally tribal chief enjoyed the power to control over their communities. They also enjoyed the power of administration of their local territories or enjoyed some economic power. But under the British rule or under the colonial rule these tribal chiefs lost their power. They were used forests products before this colonial rule. Gradually these tribal people they also lost their rights to use forests products. Then they were not allowed to enter to the forests for hunting.
Under this British rule so many people stopped their shifting cultivation and started to cultivate lands beyond the forests area.
Question: Explain about the effects of forest law during the colonial rule. (Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age)
Answer: See the above answer.