Vital village, Thriving towns

Q1. How did the earliest people increase their agricultural production in about 2500 years ago?

Ans: Around 2500 years ago, there is evidence for
the growing use of iron tools. These included axes
for clearing forests, and the iron ploughshare. The ploughshare was useful for increasing agricultural production. They also used irrigation to increase their agricultural production.
Q2. What is Vellalar, Uzhavar, Kadaisiyar and Adimai?
Ans: In the Tamil region, large landowners were known as vellalar, ordinary ploughmen were known as uzhavar, and landless labourers, including slaves, were known as kadaisiyar and adimai.
Q3. Write a short note on grama bhojaka?
Ans: In the northern part of the country, the village
headman was known as the grama bhojaka. The grama bhojaka was often the largest landowner. Generally, he had slaves and hired workers to cultivate the land. Besides, as he was powerful, the king often used him to collect taxes from the village. He also functioned as a judge, and sometimes as a policeman.
Q4. What is grihapatis?
Ans: Apart from the gramabhojaka, there were other
independent farmers, known as grihapatis, most
of whom were smaller landowners.
Q5. Who lived in the villages in about 2500 years ago?
Ans: There were at least three different kinds of people
living in most villages:
1. In the Tamil region, large landowners were known as vellalar, ordinary ploughmen were known as uzhavar, and landless labourers, including slaves, were known
as kadaisiyar and adimai.
2. In the northern part of the country, the village headman was known as the grama bhojaka.
3. Apart from the gramabhojaka, there were other
independent farmers, known as grihapatis, most
of whom were smaller landowners.
     And then there were men and women such as the dasa karmakara, the blacksmith, potter, carpenter and weaver.
Q6. Write a short note on Sangam literature.
Ans: The earliest works in Tamil, known as Sangam literature, were composed and compiled in assemblies (known as sangams) of poets that were held in the city of Madurai in about 2300 years ago. The Tamil terms mentioned above are found in Sangam literature.
Q7. What is ring wells and what was it’s use in about 2500 years ago?
Ans: In many cities, archaeologists have found rows of pots, or ceramic rings arranged one on top of the other. These are known as ring wells.
● These seem to have been used as toilets in some cases, and as drains and garbage dumps.
Q8. Why Barygaza port became more important in about 2500 years ago?
Ans: This Barygaza port became important because:
1. The imports into Barygaza were wine, copper, tin, lead, coral, topaz, cloth, gold and silver coins.
2. Exports from the town included plants from the Himalayas, ivory, agate, carnelian, cotton, silk and perfumes.
Q9. What was the means of exchange in about 2500 years ago?
Ans: Archaeologists have found several thousands of silver and copper coins belonging to this period. They carried the white paddy of their land to exchange it for the salt of another, crossing the long roads in carts,
Q10. Why Mathura became more important center in about 2500 years ago?
Ans: 
1. There were fortifications around the city, and several shrines.
2. Farmers and herders from adjoining areas
provided food for people in the city.
3. Mathura was also a centre where some extremely fine sculpture was produced.
4. Around 2000 years ago Mathura became the
second capital of the Kushanas.
5. Mathura was also a religious centre — there were Buddhist monasteries, Jaina shrines, and it was an important centre for the worship of Krishna.
Q11. What is shrenis? How did they work?
Ans: Shrenis:
Many crafts persons and merchants now
formed associations known as shrenis.
● Works:
1. These shrenis of crafts persons provided training,
procured raw material, and distributed the
finished product.
2. Then shrenis of merchants organised the trade.
3. Shrenis also served as banks, where rich men and women deposited money.
Q12. Why Arikamedu is important to the historians?
Ans: Between 2200 and 1900 years ago, Arikamedu (in Puducherry) was a coastal settlement where ships unloaded goods from distant lands. A massive brick structure and pottery , were found at the site. There is plenty of evidence for the making of beads from semi-precious stones and glass.
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